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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Fernandez-Sirera L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Cabezon O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Dematteis A.,University of Turin | Rossi L.,University of Turin | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2012

The transmission of pestiviruses between domestic and wild ruminants has not been documented in communal alpine pastures shared between wildlife and livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of domestic and wild ungulates species from Varaita Valley (SW Italian Alps) in the epidemiology of Pestivirus infections. Sera from free-ranging alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were collected from 1994 to 2009 and 2001 to 2009, respectively. Also, sera from cattle and sheep sampled in 2009 were studied. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against pestivirus with an ELISA assay. Sera from positive animals were subsequently tested with a comparative virus neutralisation test using the BVDV-NADL and BDV-137/4 strains. Sera were tested for the presence of pestiviral antigen and the presence of viral RNA with a commercial ELISA assay and RT-PCR. Antibodies against Pestivirus were detected in 132 out of 312 (42%) chamois, in 30 out of 175 (17%) cattle and 6 out of 24 (25%) sheep. No antibodies were found in roe deer. No Pestivirus antigen or RNA was detected in any of the samples. Results indicate circulation of pestiviruses among the studied chamois, cattle and sheep populations. However the role of wild ungulates in the dynamics of Pestivirus infection is still unknown and monitoring the presence of these viruses in wild ungulates would be of importance, especially in the chamois population, where pestiviruses seem to circulate extensively. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Decaro N.,University of Bari | Lanave G.,University of Bari | Lucente M.S.,University of Bari | Mari V.,University of Bari | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

A calf persistently infected with Hobi-like pestivirus displayed severe clinical signs and subsequently died. Gross lesions and histopathological changes were suggestive of hemorrhagic and necrotic inflammation involving several tissues. A Hobi-like pestivirus pair was isolated from the dead calf, i.e., cytopathogenic (CP) and noncytopathogenic (NCP) strains strictly related to each other and to Italian prototype isolates at the genetic level. Two biotype-specific real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays determined the time of the emergence of the CP virus as 1 month before the calf's death. This highest RNA titers were reached in lymphoid and nervous system tissues, whereas only traces of CP viral RNA were found in blood. In contrast, great NCP virus loads were present in all tissues and biological fluids. The present report provides new insights into the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of this emerging group of pestiviruses. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Pitardi D.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Piemonte | Pezzolato M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Piemonte | Cavarretta M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Piemonte | Richelmi G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Piemonte | And 7 more authors.
Italian Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2013

17β-estradiol is the most powerful substance with estrogenic effect, commonly used as illegal growth promoter in livestock production. To avoid health risks for consumers, sensitive, reliable and low-cost methods for quantification of extremely low concentrations of such carcinogenic residues in food are needed. Antibody-immobilised microcantilever resonators were proposed as innovative biosensors able to quantify an adsorbed target mass thanks to a shift in resonance frequency. Furthermore, the quantification of masses on the order of few picograms has recently shown to be successfully achievable with very high precision. In this study, we analysed the performance of our microcantilever sensors using extracted samples of bovine muscle from experimental animals, containing variable concentrations of 17β-estradiol (HPLC-MS/MS tested). Preliminary data showed that treated animals are correctly revealed, exhibiting large negative frequency shifts. More experiments, though, are needed to obtain a correct quantification of 17β-estradiol concentration. © D. Pitardi et al. Source


Dell'Armelina Rocha P.R.,University of Turin | Lomonaco S.,University of Turin | Bottero M.T.,University of Turin | Dalmasso A.,University of Turin | And 7 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Listeriosis is a disease that causes significant economic losses at the farm level because of high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. This study was performed to investigate the role of ruminants in the epidemiology of listeriosis in northern Italy and the possible association of animal-adapted strains of Listeria monocytogenes with strains associated with human disease. Twenty ruminant rhombencephalitis isolates previously confirmed as L. monocytogenes by bacteriology and PCR were characterized by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST), and multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism (mSNP) typing for the detection of epidemic clones. Subtyping results were subsequently compared with those obtained from human, food, and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes, including 311 isolates from the University of Turin, Grugliasco, Italy, and 165 isolates representing major human listeriosis outbreaks worldwide, in addition to other unrelated isolates. Both mSNP typing and MVLST showed that 60% of the isolates analyzed belonged to epidemic clone I (ECI), which has been epidemiologically linked to several human outbreaks of listeriosis. In particular, the 1981 Canada outbreak was linked to the use of sheep manure and the 1985 California outbreak was linked to the use of raw cow's milk. In our study, ECI isolates were collected from different ruminant species on geographically and temporally distinct occasions for the last 13 years. Our results support the hypothesis that ruminants represent possible natural reservoirs of L. monocytogenes strains capable of causing epidemics of listeriosis in humans. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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