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Monini M.,Viral Zoonoses Unit | Di Bartolo I.,Viral Zoonoses Unit | Ianiro G.,Viral Zoonoses Unit | Angeloni G.,Viral Zoonoses Unit | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

Gastrointestinal disease is frequent in pigs, and among the different etiological agents involved, viruses are considered the leading cause of infection in this animal species. Furthermore, about half of the newly identified swine pathogens are viruses, many of which may be transmitted to humans by direct contact or by indirect transmission pathways. In this study, the prevalence of astrovirus (AstV), group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in pigs was investigated. During 2012-2014, 242 fecal samples were collected from pigs at different production stages (5 to 220 days old) on eight swine farms located in northern, central and southern Italy. Seven out of eight farms analyzed were positive for AstV, which was detected in 163 out of 242 (67.4 %) samples and was the most prevalent virus; 61 of the 163 AstV-positive animals (37.4 %) had diarrhea. HEV was detected on six farms and in 45 (18.6 %) of the 242 samples analyzed. Twenty-three HEV-infected pigs had diarrhea (51.1 %). A lower prevalence was observed for RVA, which was found in 10 of the 242 samples (4.1 %) from three positive farms, and diarrhea was present only in six infected pigs (60.0 %). No swine samples were found to be positive for NoV. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of some strains representative of the different viruses detected were investigated, confirming a wide heterogeneity of viral strains circulating among pigs. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.3-02 | Award Amount: 6.53M | Year: 2012

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a devastating disease affecting swine caused by a complex virus, the only member of the Asfarviridae family. Disease transmission is maintained under different and complex epidemiological scenarios involving domestic and wild swine and arthropod vectors (soft ticks Ornithodoros sp). Due to the fact that no vaccine has been obtained so far, prevention, control, and eradication of the disease is mainly based on the early detection and the implementation of strict sanitary measures. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan countries of Africa and in EU member states is currently confined to Italy (Sardinia). Since 2007 ASF was declared in Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and in the Russia Federation where continues spreading out of control, posing a serious threat to EU countries. This project will provide i) essential information to design more cost-effective surveillance and control strategies for ASF into different risk scenarios, ii) data essential to identify risk factors for designing new control strategies including wildlife considerations (role of wild boar and argasids) and iii) advance work leading to vaccine development through rational deletion of genes to produce attenuated and non-replicating candidate ASFV vaccine strains and identification of protective antigens and their incorporation into vectored virus vaccines. Additionally the project will improve preparedness for ASF at different levels with workshops targeting pig farmers, hunters, pig veterinarians and governmental agencies in EU and ASF affected countries. Knowledge and new technologies developed within the project will be disseminated through multiple information channels (publications, mass media, Internet). Outputs of this project will provide policy makers with valuable decision support tools to better prevent and control ASF.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-05 | Award Amount: 3.98M | Year: 2008

African swine fever (ASF) in EU member states is currently confined to Italy (Sardinia), it was recently introduced to Caucasian regions and it is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African countries. In both the EC and Africa changes in the epidemiology of the disease have recently been observed, related to newly emerging strains of ASFV, emphasising the serious threat this disease represents to the growing pig farming sector in Africa and Europe. This project will provide new tools and strategies for the control of ASF in Africa and reduce the risk of importation and/or spread of the disease in EU member states The project will evaluate the current ASF epidemiology in Africa, develop and validate a generic risk assessment for the introduction of ASF into EU countries and subsequent control strategies. The project will also develop and validate new antibody and nucleic acid-based diagnostic tools for ASF, including front line and pen-side tests, which will be supplied to diagnostic facilities in Africa and the Animal Health Laboratories in the EU for the early detection of potential ASFV incursions, in particular by the newly emerging strains. Additionally the project will study the interaction of ASFV and host genes following experimental infection with a view to obtaining attenuated recombinant virus strains that may be potential future candidates for a vaccine and the characterization of pig immune mechanisms relevant for survival following infection with ASFV. The new strategies and the tools developed within this project will be transferred to African partners, and other interested countries, and established in these countries through local training/workshops and technology transfer.


Galarini R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellUmbria e delle Marche | Fioroni L.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellUmbria e delle Marche | Moretti S.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellUmbria e delle Marche | Pettinacci L.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellUmbria e delle Marche | Dusi G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

A confirmatory method for the determination of residues of eleven coccidiostats including ionophore antibiotics: lasalocid, maduramycin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin, semduramycin and chemical coccidiostats: decoquinate, diclazuril, halofuginone, nicarbazin and robenidine in poultry eggs was developed and validated. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile, defatted with hexane and cleaned-up on a silica SPE cartridge. The analytes were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method performance characteristics required by Commission Decision 2002/657/EC were estimated adopting a more flexible and simple validation design. In this alternative approach the experimental study focuses on a larger dynamic range with progressively increasing validation levels. Each of them presents equal concentrations of all the analytes. On the contrary the classical Decision plan investigates a restricted concentration range necessarily different for each analyte being determined by the individual permitted limit (0.5-1.5 times the permitted limit). As a consequence each validation level involves the simultaneous fortification with complex mixtures containing different concentrations of each analyte. Adopting this alternative strategy the validation of several substances with significantly different permitted limits is considerably simplified and a deeper knowledge of the method is achieved. The results proved that the method enables the confirmation of regulated coccidiostats in eggs at the levels required in the official control of residues (CCα in the range of 2.2-174μgkg-1, depending on the coccidiostat). The repeatability (CVr in the range of 1.1-19%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (CVRw in the range of 1.8-30%) are also acceptable. The procedure was successfully verified in the proficiency test and implemented in the national residue control plan. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-3-03 | Award Amount: 4.43M | Year: 2009

Although classical swine fever (CSF) has been eradicated in wide areas within the EU the disease is endemic in some new member states particularly in back yard pigs. In order to improve the eradication strategies the project aims are a) the final development and testing of a live marker vaccine candidate for the prevention and improved control of CSF, both orally and intramuscularly applicable; b) the development and optimisation of accompanying discriminatory diagnostic tests; c) the production of an effective, oral delivery system for the marker vaccine for use in wild boar and back yard pigs; d) the easy selection of diseased animals. The improved knowledge on immunological reactions and pathogenesis will support a more efficient vaccine application and provide data for the epidemiological models. Epidemiological studies of CSF in domestic and back yard pigs and in wild boar including molecular epidemiology intend to increase the insight of CSF transmission and persistence. Epidemiological models will be developed to support risk assessment as well for conventional eradication strategies as for new strategies using the new vaccines and diagnostic tools including the role of CSF reservoirs. The results concerning anti-viral treatment will be evaluated and compared with the traditional eradication strategies.

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