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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-10 | Award Amount: 8.06M | Year: 2012

European aquaculture production provides direct employment to 65.000 people with a turnover of 3 billion . However, the lack of authorised veterinary medicinal products and the consequent disease outbreaks in farmed fish species costs the sector 20% of the production value. The most appropriate method for disease control, both on economical and ethical grounds, is disease prevention by vaccination. TargetFish will advance the development of existing (but not sufficient) and new prototype vaccines against socio-economically important viral or bacterial pathogens of Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, common carp, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The project will develop targeted vaccination strategies for currently sub-optimal and for novel vaccines. Improved vaccines will be brought closer to industrial application by addressing practical issues such as efficacy, safety and delivery route. TargetFish will also establish a knowledge- and technology-base for rational development of next generation fish vaccines. To achieve these challenging tasks, we brought together 29 partners from 11 EU member states, 2 associated countries and 1 International Cooperation Partner Country (ICPC). In this large multidisciplinary consortium an approximate equal number of RTD and SME partners will cooperate closely while keeping an intensive communication with the large vaccine and nutrition industries via an Industry Forum. Specifically, TargetFish will 1) generate knowledge by studying antigens and adjuvants for mucosal routes of administration while analyzing the underpinning protective immune mechanisms; 2) validate this knowledge with response assays for monitoring vaccine efficacy and study safety aspects, including those associated with DNA vaccines; 3) approach implementation of prototype vaccines by optimizing vaccination strategies thus 4) shortening the route to exploitation. Thereby, this project will greatly enhance targeted disease prophylaxis in European fish farming.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.3-06 | Award Amount: 6.63M | Year: 2010

FLUPIG aims at a better understanding of the role of pigs in influenza pandemics. Pandemic influenza viruses come from wild birds, but they must adapt to efficient replication and transmission in humans to cause a pandemic. Pigs are considered important intermediate hosts in which avian viruses adapt to mammals before they transmit to humans. However, the exact role of pigs is unclear, as is the nature of the genetic changes that are required for (a) efficient replication of an avian virus in pigs, (b) efficient transmission of avian viruses between pigs and (c) virus transmission from pigs to humans and between humans. The FLUPIG consortium will examine both the role of adaptive mutations and genetic reassortment. In addition, we will study the role of host and environmental factors in adaptation of avian influenza viruses to pigs. The occurrence and severity of a pandemic also depends on the immune status of the human population. The FLUPIG consortium will study the extent of cross-protection between antigenically different influenza viruses of the H1N1 subtype (heterovariant cross-protection), and between influenza viruses belonging to different haemagglutinin subtypes (heterosubtypic cross-protection). We will also study the immune mechanisms required for a broad cross-protection. In addition, we will evaluate the capacity of novel generation vaccines to broaden cross-protection. Most studies will be performed in pigs or other relevant animals, or in explants of the porcine and human respiratory tract, which show maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Our studies will enable us to advice public health authorities about the role and risk of the pig in the emergence of novel influenza viruses in the human population. Combined with improved surveillance for influenza in animals, effective vaccines and antivirals, this knowledge will be critical to the control of future influenza pandemics.

Jacob C.C.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | Dervilly-Pinel G.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | Biancotto G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie | Le Bizec B.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries
Metabolomics | Year: 2014

Urine is an ideal biofluid for metabolomics studies since it is obtained noninvasively, and its composition is affected by genetic and environmental factors reflecting the physiology of multiple organs. However, urine dilution effects and instrumental variation from the analytical method play a significant confounding role when one attempts to characterize biological and physiological factors through NMR and MS measurements of small molecule concentrations. Several normalization approaches have been used for urinary metabolomics studies and normalization to osmolality or to total useful MS signal have been proposed. When dealing with urinary metabolome analysis in cattle, freeze-drying (FD) is the method commonly used for normalization purposes. Herein, normalization to specific gravity, which provides a fair estimation of urine osmolality, was compared to the time consuming FD step and to the normalization to total useful MS signal in order to assess if this approach could be used as normalization strategy to differentiate control from anabolic treated animals. The results revealed that ~80 % of the metabolites detected as constituting the acquired MS fingerprints for the freeze-dried samples and for the samples normalized to both specific gravity (SG) and total useful MS signal were in common. In addition, similar information from the multivariate statistical analysis was obtained by both normalization approaches. We demonstrate, therefore, that SG can be used as normalization approach for urinary metabolome analysis in cattle resulting in a high sample throughput procedure when compared with the FD step. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ospedale San Raffaele S.R.L. and Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Delle Venezie | Date: 2013-10-10

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in insulin deficiency. The usual cause of this beta cell loss is autoimmune destruction. The inventors provide the first evidence of a causal link between influenza virus infection and the development of type 1 diabetes and/or pancreatitis. This causal link between infection and type 1 diabetes and/or pancreatitis provides various therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic opportunities.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 15.16M | Year: 2011

The capacity of zoonotic RNA viruses to emerge as major agents of human disease can appear limitless. Current intervention strategies have demonstrated limited success. Rapid, innovative and effective solutions are needed to reduce the apparently accelerating process of zoonotic disease emergence. We will study the following zoonotic viruses with epidemic potential in Europe: influenza virus, hepatitis E virus, viruses of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex and lyssaviruses. These diverse viruses arise from the main reservoirs and vectors of potentially emerging viral diseases and use the three major routes of transmission: respiratory, faecal-oral and vector borne. Inter-disciplinary studies will generate valuable data on patterns of crossing the species barrier, transmission and disease emergence, including ecological and anthropological factors which determine virus availability and opportunities for exposure and infection. We will unravel the complex biological interactions between the virus and the recipient hosts that drive the viral adaptation and elucidate the factors determining the ability of the viruses to spread to and between humans (including pandemic spread). Furthermore, immune mechanisms of protection and novel prevention strategies will be investigated. Data will be compiled in a unique and freely accessible data-sharing platform to build a framework for analysing the drivers of pathogen emergence. Modelling, building on the analysis of key data, will focus on the extent to which pathogen trajectories are predictable and will identify high-risk situations and environments. This will allow improvement of disease surveillance, control, preparedness and intervention. Training in leading European Universities, as well as exchanges of approaches and data sharing with national and international health organizations will strengthen European position in this global challenge.

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