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Formato G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Smulders F.J.M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Veterinary Quarterly | Year: 2011

Prompted by FAO/WHO's and the European Commission's recognition that documents on Good Farming Practices (GFPs) and Good Veterinary Practices (GVPs) in apicultural production are hardly available, part 1 of this contribution provides an update of current apicultural production and associated best practices to ensure animal and public health. Major bee health and disease prevention issues and risk management options at the primary production level are summarised with particular reference to the role of the veterinary practitioner/ consultant and the official veterinarian in a control function in the safe production of honey. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Rombola P.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana
Epidemiologia e prevenzione | Year: 2012

The aim of the present review is to provide a picture of the current knowledge on animal biomonitoring and on the link between pollution and Public Health. There are various reasons leading to this road: the need of early detection of industrial pollutants, especially micropollutants that have adverse effects in very low concentrations: it is important to disclose the presence of these compounds directly or through certain molecular biomarkers in living organisms rather than in the natural environment, where they are often below the detection threshold; the need to optimize the allocation of resources: some experiences of biomonitoring carried out in wild animals may be useful in the identification of pollution sources; however, biomonitoring of domestic animals appears to be more feasable and effective, because they share with humans the exposure to pollutants. Nowadays, professionals of different disciplines such as doctors and biologists do not share a common set of terms and definitions in animal biomonitoring: this review wants to give a contribution in the consolidation of the current knowledge under a common language. Source

Perrucci S.,University of Pisa | Di Cesare A.,University of Teramo | Fichi G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

The development of Eucoleus böhmi eggs was evaluated in vitro in order to acquire information on the life cycle of this neglected respiratory nematode affecting canids. Fecal cultures were prepared using fecal samples from a positive dog and maintained at different conditions of temperature (20±1 and 5±1°C) and relative humidity (RH) (85±5 and 45±5 %). Egg development was microscopically examined at days +7, +15, and +30. In addition, in order to assess the vitality of eggs maintained at 5±1°C for 30 days, these latter cultures were moved, placed at 20±1°C and 85±5 % RH, and observed for further 30 and 40 days. The results showed that at 20±1°C and 85±5 % RH, the totality of eggs completed development in 30 days, while about 26 and 70 % of eggs were already fully developed after 7 and 15 days, respectively. No egg development occurred after 30 days at 5±1°C, while 100 % of eggs placed at 5±1°C for 30 days and then moved at 20±1°C and 85±5 % RH for further 40 days were found fully developed. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

Suffredini E.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Lanni L.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Arcangeli G.,Vle University 10 | Pepe T.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Bivalve molluscs are a well documented source of viral infection. Further data on shellfish viral contamination are needed to implement European Regulations with sanitary measures more effective against viral pathogens. To this aim, 336 samples of bivalve molluscs (185 mussels, 66 clams, 23 oysters and 62 samples from other species) collected in harvesting areas of class A and B of four Italian Regions were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV) GI and GII, using real time RT-PCR.The results showed a wide diffusion of viral contamination in the shellfish production areas considered. HAV prevalence was low (0.9%) with contamination levels that varied from 5 to 7×102copies/g. On the contrary, NoV showed a high prevalence (51.5%), with a large variability according to the group considered (e.g. 47.8% for Crassostrea in Veneto, 79.7% for Mytilus in Campania, 84.6% for Tapes in Sardinia). NoV contamination affected class A and class B production areas to a different extent, with a statistically significant difference in both contamination prevalence (22.1% vs. 66.3%; p<0.0001) and quantity (average contamination level of 3.1×102 vs. 1.9×103 copies/g; p<0.05). The different species analyzed from class B harvesting areas (Mytilus, Tapes/Ruditapes and Crassostrea) showed a NoV prevalence respectively of 70.3%, 66.0% and 47.8% but comparable NoV contamination levels (between 8.4×102 and 4.9×103copies/g). Other two bivalve species considered in the study (Donax spp. and Solen spp.) showed a relevant NoV presence (40.0% and 34.4% of samples). Finally, samples analyzed before and after commercial purification treatment showed a decrease of contamination prevalence after the treatment, but inconsistent results were recorded on NoV levels.The data obtained, together with other quantitative information to estimate consumer exposure, in association with studies on dose-response and on the effectiveness of post-harvest treatments, will provide a useful tool for the definition of microbiological criteria related to the different shellfish species. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

in March 2005, the Italian National Monitoring System on Chemical Residuals in Food of Animal Origin detected levels of the pesticide beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) that were 20 times higher than the legal limit of 0.003 mg/kg in bulk milk from a dairy farm in the Sacco River valley. ß-HCH, a lindane isomer and possible human carcinogen, was subsequently found in milk from several neighboring farms. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. all dairy cattle farms in the valley were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study and their bulk milk analyzed for ß-HCH. A questionnaire was administered to farmers to evaluate possible exposure factors. cases: dairy farms with at least one result indicating ß-HCH ≥ 0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk during the period april-june 2005; exposure: feeding animals on fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water; participants: IZSLT, RMG Local Health Unit, FR Local Health Unit. attack rate, relative risk, attributable proportion among exposed. of 244 farms tested, 34 met the case definition (attack rate 14%). The exposure to fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water was observed in 33/34 (97%) case-farms and in 23/210 (10.9%) of those with contamination <0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk (RR 110.8; 95%CI 15.5- 792). Attributable proportion among exposed was more than 99%. fodder cultivated near a contaminated river was the main risk factor for ß-HCH contaminated milk. On the basis of the epidemiologic evidence and laboratory testing, watering local fields with river water and production of fodder in farms with contaminated soil was banned, and all the animals from positive farms were culled. Source

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