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Ippoliti C.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo e Del Molise G. Caporale | Gilbert M.,Free University of Colombia | Gilbert M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Vanhuysse S.,Free University of Colombia | And 4 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2013

Culicoides imicola is considered to be one of the main vectors of bluetongue disease in the Mediterranean Basin. However, local variations occur. For example, in Italy, C. imicola is a stable and abundant population in Sardinia and is widely distributed across the island, whilst in Tuscany on the Italian mainland, it ranges from low abundance in the west and coastal areas to absence in the eastern part of the region. Entomological surveillance data collected over 10 years were used to classify 52 sites as low to medium or high C. imicola abundance in Sardinia, and 59 sites as either positive or negative in Tuscany. The land cover was mapped from high-resolution remote sensing images using an object-based image analysis approach and a set of landscape metrics with 500 m buffers around each site. Multivariate analysis was used to test the statistical association of landscape metrics to C. imicola presence and abundance together with other eco-climatic and topographic variables. In Sardinia, 75% of the sites were correctly classified based on altitude alone and the inclusion of landscape-related variables did not improve the classification. In Tuscany, the mean annual temperature allowed classifying 70% of the positive/negative sites correctly. When landscape metrics was included in the multivariate model, an improvement up to 80% was obtained. The presence of riparian vegetation and water was found to be positively correlated with C. imicola presence, whilst forest (including the edge between the forest and cultivated areas) was found to be negatively related to the presence of C. imicola.

Addis M.F.,Porto Conte Ricerche S.r.l | Addis M.F.,University of Sassari | Pisanu S.,Porto Conte Ricerche S.r.l | Ghisaura S.,Porto Conte Ricerche S.r.l | And 10 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2011

Milk fat globules (MFGs) are vesicles released in milk as fat droplets surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum and apical cell membranes. During formation and apocrine secretion by lactocytes, various amounts of cytoplasmic crescents remain trapped within the released vesicle, making MFGs a natural sampling mechanism of the lactating cell contents. With the aim of investigating the events occurring in the mammary epithelium during bacterial infection, the MFG proteome was characterized by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), SDS-PAGE followed by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS), label-free quantification by the normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF) approach, Western blotting, and pathway analysis, using sheep naturally infected by Mycoplasma agalactiae. A number of protein classes were found to increase in MFGs upon infection, including proteins involved in inflammation and host defense, cortical cytoskeleton proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteins related to oxidative stress. Conversely, a strikingly lower abundance was observed for proteins devoted to MFG metabolism and secretion. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing proteomic changes occurring in MFGs during sheep infectious mastitis. The results presented here offer new insights into the in vivo response of mammary epithelial cells to bacterial infection and open the way to the discovery of protein biomarkers for monitoring clinical and subclinical mastitis. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Manca P.,University of Sassari | Chisu V.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi
Archives Italiennes de Biologie | Year: 2010

2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), a metabolite deriving from 17-β estradiol, is a well-established antiangiogenic, apoptotic and antiproliferative agent in cell cultures and animal models. 2ME may also exert its cytotoxic activity by interacting with tubulin and by causing an impairment of the microtubular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of 2ME on mouse neuroblastoma (C1300) and rat glioma (C6) cell lines in inducing morpho-functional changes and alteration of the microtubular system physiology. Cells, cultured in a medium supplemented with increasing 2ME micromolar concentrations, were submitted to morphological investigations, MTT assay and western blot analysis. 2ME-exposed cell lines displayed in comparison with control cells, morpho-functional changes such as reduction in cell number, a globular/shrunken shape, retraction or absence of cytoplasmic processes, inhibition of cell growth and cell decreased viability. Interestingly, all changes detected were more evident in C1300 cells than in C6 cells. Western blot analysis showed that the total and the tyrosinated α-tubulin expression was reduced more intensely in the C1300 than in C6 cells; whereas the acetylated α-tubulin expression did not significantly decrease in either cell lines. Results demonstrate that 2ME is more effective in neural cells than in glial cells. The alteration of total and tyrosinated a-tubulin expression suggests that 2ME effectiveness could be strictly related to an impairment of microtubule system physiology resulting in morpho-functional changes, block of mitosis and cell death.

Piras P.,University of Sassari | Chessa G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi | Cossu M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi | Rubattu F.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi | Fiori G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi
Italian Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2013

Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods - mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas - evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008-2012), 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris), cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), European squid (Loligo vulgaris), and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus), located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC) No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle) of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered. © P. Piras et al., 2013 Licensee PAGEPress, Italy.

Pilo C.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi | Tedde M.T.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi | Orru G.,University of Cagliari | Addis G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi | Liciardi M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna G. Pegreffi
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

During a 4-year (2007-2010) survey, the presence of Brucella suis infection in domestic pigs in Sardinia was investigated. Serum samples were collected from breeding pigs located on 108 commercial farms with documented reproductive problems and analysed using the Rose Bengal (RBT) and complement fixation (CFT) tests for screening and confirmation of Brucella, respectively. Of the 1251 serum samples analysed by RBT, 406 sera, originating from 36 farms, were positive for B. suis. CFT was positive in 292/748 sera analysed, confirming positivity in all 36 pig herds. Pigs with international complement fixation test units per ml (ICFTU/ml) values ©3/4160 were slaughtered, and their organs collected for bacteriological examination and testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella spp. strains were isolated in culture from 13/502 organs analysed, and subsequently identified as B. suis biovar 2. PCR detected positivity to Brucella spp. in 19/285 organs analysed. These results confirm the presence and emergence of B. suis infection in domestic pigs in Sardinia. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

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