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Lorenzini R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Cabras P.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | Fanelli R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Carboni G.L.,Servizio Territoriale Ispettorato Ripartimentale del Corpo Forestale e di V.A. di Lanusei
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

A forensic short tandem repeat (STR) typing test using a population database was developed to investigate an instance of poaching on the protected Sardinian mouflon. The case study involves a suspected poacher found in possession of a carcass, which he claimed was that of a sheep from his flock and had died accidentally. His claim was refuted by the molecular forensic analyses as DNA typing and the Bayesian assignment test revealed the carcass to be mouflon-derived; the genetic profile of the carcass matched also that of additional trace evidence collected by forestry officers at the scene of the kill. The matching evidence led to the poacher being charged with the illegal harvest of protected wildlife. Molecular techniques, in combination with a reference population database, and the appropriate statistical evaluation of genetic information, are fundamental to wildlife forensics. This approach allows DNA testing to be accepted in court as submissible evidence in the fight against poaching and other crimes involving wildlife. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nudda A.,University of Sassari | Battacone G.,University of Sassari | Atzori A.S.,University of Sassari | Dimauro C.,University of Sassari | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013

This study assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with extruded linseed on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid (FA) profile and renal and hepatic metabolism of grazing goats in mid-lactation. Forty Saanen goats were divided into two isoproductive groups: one group was fed the control diet (CON) composed of hay and pelleted concentrate and the other group was supplemented with additional 180 g/day of extruded linseed (LIN; dry matter basis), which supplied 70 g/day of fat per head for 9 weeks. Animals grazed on pasture for ∼3 h/day after the first of the 2 daily milkings. Milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks and analyzed for total bilirubin, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and urea nitrogen. Milk yield was higher in the LIN than in the CON group (2369 v. 2052 g/day). LIN group had higher milk fat (37.7 v. 33.4 g/kg) and protein (30.7 v. 29.1 g/kg) concentration and lower MUN (35.0 v. 43.3 mg/dl) than CON group. Goats fed LIN had greater proportions of 18:1 trans11, 18:2 cis9trans11 and total polyunsatured fatty acids n-3 in milk fat, because of higher 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 FA, and lower proportions of short-and medium-chain FAs than goats fed CON. All kidney and liver function biomarkers in serum did not differ between dietary groups, except for AST and ALT, which tended to differ. Extruded linseed supplementation to grazing mid-lactating goats for 2 months can enhance the milk performance and nutritional profile of milk lipids, without altering the general hepatic and renal metabolism. © 2013 The Animal Consortium.

Migliore L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Godeas F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | De Filippis S.P.,Toxicological Chemistry Unit | Mantovi P.,Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

Animal wastes from intensive pig farming as fertilizers may expose crops to antimicrobials. Zea mays cultivations were carried out on a virgin field, subjected to dressing with pig slurries contaminated at 15 mg L-1 of Oxy- and 5 mg L-1 of Chlor-tetracycline, and at 8 mg L-1 of Oxy and 3 mg L-1 of Chlor, respectively. Pot cultivation was performed outdoor (Oxy in the range 62.5-1000 ng g-1 dry soil) and plants harvested after 45 days. Tetracyclines analyses on soils and on field plants (roots, stalks, and leaves) did not determine the appreciable presence of tetracyclines. Residues were found in the 45-day pot corn only, in the range of 1-50 ng g-1 for Oxy in roots, accounting for a 5% carry-over rate, on average. Although no detectable residues in plants from on land cultivations, both experimental batches showed the same biphasic growth form corresponding to a dose/response hormetic curve. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mastrandrea S.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | Stegel G.,University of Sassari | Piseddu T.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | Ledda S.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | Masala G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna
Acta Tropica | Year: 2012

Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is an infective zoonosis that represents a worldwide important public health problem. In humans, its manifestations may range from asymptomatic infection to severe disease and possible death, and lead to economic losses from treatment costs and lost wages. Recent studies suggest that this disease has a large social impact in endemic areas, and estimates of burden in terms of monetary and no-monetary impact on human health are essential to allocate financial and technical resources. In Sardinia, the most affected Italian region per number of inhabitants, CE is still endemic, although three eradication campaigns have been carried out in 1962, 1978, and 1987, respectively. To date, the burden of human CE in Sardinia remains poorly defined. In this work, a retrospective study was carried out using public Hospital Discharge Records spanning from 2001 to 2009. During these years, a total of 1409 discharges were recorded: 1196 (84.88%) records corresponding to patients hospitalized for symptoms directly correlated to CE (primary diagnosis), and 213 (15.11%) records corresponding to patients hospitalized for symptoms not directly correlated to CE and with an afterwards or concurrent diagnosis of echinococcosis made during the hospitalization (secondary diagnosis). The annual regional average record (discharge rate) was 9.3/100,000 inhabitants. Direct cost associated with diagnosis, surgery or chemotherapy, medical care, and hospitalization in humans were evaluated in this work. Furthermore, burden of disease was also evaluated by using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the preferred disease-burden measure of the World Health Organization. Knowing the burden of human CE in Sardinia is extremely important to enable the prioritization of control measures for this preventable neglected disease. This is the first study describing the measure of the overall disease burden in an Italian region endemic for this disease, performed by calculating the number of CE patients from Hospital Discharge Records. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Brundu D.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | Piseddu T.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | Stegel G.,University of Sassari | Masu G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic parasitic infection. The European Centre for Disease Control highlights that Italy lacks a surveillance system for CE. Due to the lack of official data, we analysed the Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs) drawn from the National Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to analyse data from the HDRs with CE-related diagnoses in Italy from 2001 to 2012 to assess the current status and trend of disease epidemiology. A total of 16,550 HDRs related to the admission of 10,682 Italian patients were examined. The HDRs were analysed according to the patient's region and province code to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of each case, together with the annual incidence rates of hospital cases (AIh) in administrative divisions in rural and urban areas. Lesions occurred frequently in the liver (83.6%) and lungs (8.4%). Patients ranged in age from 1 to 100 years (mean 59.8), and 57% were over 60 years old. The highest average AIh was registered in the Islands with 4.6/105 inhabitants (6.9/105 in Sardinia and 4.3/105 in Sicily), followed by the South with an average AIh of 1.9/105 inhabitants (5.4/105 inhabitants) and the Centre with an average AIh of 1.07/105 inhabitants (there was an AIh of 1.65/105 in Latium). The analysis for trend showed a statistically significant decrease in the AIh throughout the study period (e.g., in the Islands r2=0.98, p<0.001). An AIh over 2/105 inhabitants was observed in 31/110 provinces. Rural areas with comprehensive development problems had a relative risk of CE of 5.7 (95% CI, 5.3 to 6.9) compared to urban areas. The relative risk increased between areas where sheep breeding is widespread compared to those where it is less prevalent. This study shows a detailed picture of the geographic distribution and the epidemiological situation of CE in Italy, indicating that CE continues to be a significant public health problem in Italy. The retrospective study of HDRs is useful for the evaluation of the status of disease epidemiology; however, a surveillance system is needed to report confirmed cases of human CE. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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