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Marangi M.,University of Foggia | Morelli V.,Laboratori Bonassisa | Pati S.,University of Foggia | Camarda A.,University of Bari | And 2 more authors.

In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides - sometimes in high concentrations - to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS. Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle. © 2012 Marangi et al. Source

Scortichini G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellUmbria e delle Marche | Amorena M.,University of Teramo | Brambilla G.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Ceci R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo E del Molise | And 5 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research

Sheep flocks are sensitive to the top soil intake, via their grazing activity and the ingestion of soil particles incorporated into the hay especially during harvesting operations. Such intake is estimated between 2 and 20% of the dry matter from grass and hay and may vary accounting for seasonal and geographical differences in the quality of pastures. The persistent organic pollutants accumulated in soil such as polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), may transfer through the food chain. In this paper, the authors consider the quality of soils and the toxicokinetic factors that allow the transfer of the contamination to milk and the edible tissues in sheep. The wide range of PCDD/F concentration reported in milk (0.05-30pg WHO1998-TEQ/g fat), meat (0.18-4.9pg WHO1998-TEQ/g fat) and liver (4.8-161pg WHO1998-TEQ/g fat) from extensively reared flocks in areas of European countries under different industrial and urban pressures, indicate the opportunity to adopt risk management options based on environmental quality standards and good agriculture practices, able to support the access to a safe and nutritious food. With respect to the PCDD/F and DL-PCB intake, liver represents the most contaminated food item, for its ability to bind such lipophilic contaminants irrespective of its lipid content. Case-studies from the Mediterranean area are illustrated, to support the environment and health approach also in terms of sustainability of family farms production. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Brambilla G.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Abete M.C.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte | Binato G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie | Chiaravalle E.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e Basilicata | And 8 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

Mercury (Hg) settlements in the Mediterranean Sea determine a potential toxicological relevance of seafood intakes for coastal populations. To assess this possibility, fish, molluscs, and crustaceans of commercial size of 69 different species were sampled and analyzed for total mercury (HgTOT) from georeferenced areas and evaluated for their compliance with the European Union Maximum Residue Limits of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kgwet weight (ww). Accounting for the weekly estimated seafood intake in the Italian coastal population (mean 469-626g/person/week) it was then possible to recover threshold contamination values in seafood. Under a Tolerable Weekly Intake of 1.3μg/kg/bw/week, a threshold seafood contamination <0.10mg/kgww has been derived for sensitive groups. A suitable algorithm based on the parallel MeHg and HgTOT analysis on the most consumed species, helped to refine the uncertainties related to the conservative assumption in seafood all the HgTOT present is in form of MeHg. This work aims to improve the link between the risk management and risk assessment strategies, with the identification of those fish and seafood species, that, when regularly consumed, could determine or prevent potential HgTOT/MeHg overintakes in sensitive groups. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Bonerba E.,University of Bari | Mottola A.,University of Bari | Parisi A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e Basilicata | Di Pinto A.,University of Bari | And 5 more authors.
Italian Journal of Food Safety

The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in 20 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis purchased at fish markets in Apulia region. The detection of Arcobacter spp. was performed, after selective enrichment, on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD) agar supplemented with Cefoperazone, Amphotericin B and Teicoplanin (CAT). In 6 out of the 20 tested samples the presence of Arcobacter spp. was found and confirmed by genus-based polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were identified as belonging to the species Arcobacter butzleri using 16S rDNA sequencing and BLAST online. The results represent the first report in Italy of A. butzleri detection in marketed Mytilus galloprovincialis. The survey underlines the epidemiological importance of A. butzleri as an emerging pathogen, and highlights that mussels should be considered as a potential cause of foodborne disease outbreak. © Copyright E. Bonerba et al., 2015. Source

Dellatte E.,Toxicological Chemistry Unit | Brambilla G.,Toxicological Chemistry Unit | Miniero R.,Toxicological Chemistry Unit | Abete M.C.,University of Bologna | And 6 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

A Seafood Frequency Questionnaire (SFQ) broken down in more than 42 items with 8-week coverage was interview-administered to 278 adults aged 19-82. years (167 women, 98 in the reproductive age 19-45. years, and 111 men), resident on the Italian Mediterranean shore and frequent buyer at local fish markets. Methylmercury (MeHg) intake on individual basis was estimated for a selected occurrence equal to the median value. +. Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) in each seafood species reported (conservative scenario). MeHg occurrence was derived from an extensive seafood database referred to years 2009-2011. Accounting for an average body weight of 62.2. kg, 24.6% of women resulted overexposed with respect to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) for MeHg of 1.3. μg/kg bw, with a mean of 0.92. μg/kg bw. In the vulnerable group aged 19-45. years, 29.6% exceeded the TWI. Rather than the amount of seafood consumed, the seafood choice appears to be the main determinant of the MeHg intake. Risk awareness was reported in the 49% of SFQs. Uncertainties related to such estimates from questionnaires are discussed, in order to give adequate health recommendations without compromising seafood consumption in the Mediterranean region. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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