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Gokbulut C.,Balikesir University | Aksit D.,Balikesir University | Smaldone G.,University of Naples Federico II | Mariani U.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | Veneziano V.,University of Naples Federico II
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

The plasma disposition, faecal excretion and efficacy of two formulations of pyrantel pamoate in donkeys were examined in a controlled trial. Three groups of seven donkeys received either no medication (control) or pyrantel paste or granule formulations at horse dosage of 20mg/kg B.W. (equals 6.94mg/kg PYR base) of body weight. Heparinized blood and faecal samples were collected at various times between 1 and 144h after treatment. The samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The last detectable plasma concentration (tmax) of paste formulation was significantly earlier (36.00h) compared with granule formulation (46.29h). Although, there was no significant difference on terminal half lives (t1/2: 12.39h vs. 14.86h), tmax (14.86h vs. 14.00) and MRT (24.80h vs. 25.44h) values; the Cmax (0.09μg/ml) AUC (2.65μgh/ml) values of paste formulation were significantly lower and smaller compared with those of granule formulation (0.21μg/ml and 5.60μgh/ml), respectively. The highest dry faecal concentrations were 710.46μg/g and 537.21μg/g and were determined at 48h for both paste and granule formulation of PYR in donkeys, respectively. Pre-treatment EPG of 1104, 1061 and 1139 were observed for the control, PYR paste and PYR granule groups, respectively. Pre-treatment EPG were not significantly different (P>0.1) between groups. Post-treatment EPG for both PYR treatment groups were significantly different (P<0.001) from the control group until day 35. Following treatments the PYR formulations were efficient (>95% efficacy) until day 28. In all studied donkeys, coprocultures performed at day-3 revealed the presence of Cyathostomes, S. vulgaris. Faecal cultures performed on different days from C-group confirmed the presence of the same genera. Coprocultures from treated animals revealed the presence of few larvae of Cyathostomes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Veneziano V.,University of Naples Federico II | Neglia G.,University of Naples Federico II | Galietti A.,Naturalist Science | Bassini A.,Pfizer | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The chewing louse Werneckiella equi is an ectoparasite of donkeys and other equids. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used for the control of insects of veterinary and public health concerns. A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of ACYP against W. equi on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on 13 animals. On day 0, the donkeys received ACYP pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate for cattle. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. ACYP was completely effective (100 %) from day 7, until the end of the study. ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinical adverse reactions. ACYP was highly effective, safe, userfriendly, and considered to be suitable for the treatment of donkeys for W. equi infestation. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Manna L.,University of Naples Federico II | Corso R.,University of Naples Federico II | Galiero G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | Cerrone A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Visceral leishmaniosis is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. It is found mainly in areas where both the parasite and its vector are endemic and is one of the most challenging infectious diseases in the world to control. HIV infected patients are vulnerable to Leishmania infections, and the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum parasites are domestic dogs. Here, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of treatment with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol (G1) compared to miltefosine plus allopurinol (G2) in dogs naturally infected L. infantum. Methods: Eighteen dogs with leishmaniosis were divided into the following two groups: G1 (n = 9) was treated subcutaneously with meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg/day/30 days) plus allopurinol (10 mg/kg/per day/30 days), while G2 (n = 9) was treated orally with miltefosine (2 mg/Kg/day/30 days) plus allopurinol (10 mg/kg/day/30 days). Thereafter, the same dose of allopurinol was administered to both groups for 6 years. Leishmania DNA in lymph node aspirates from the G1 and G2 dogs was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR at baseline and every 3 months for 24 months, and then at 28, 36, 48, 60 and 72 months. At each assessment, the dogs were examined for signs of disease, and their clinical scores were recorded. Results: Both combination therapies produced significant clinical improvements in the dogs, with a significant reduction in the parasitic load in the lymph nodes of the dogs from both groups after 3 months of treatment. Clinical relapses were observed in four dogs from G2 (miltefosine/allopurinol), and just one dog from G1 (meglumine antimoniate/allopurinol). All dogs that relapsed had increased clinical scores, and increased anti-Leishmania antibody titers and parasitic loads in their lymph nodes. Conclusions: Long-term, the clinical and laboratory findings of the G1 dogs were more stable than those of the G2 dogs, thus indicating that meglumine antimoniate had better clinical efficacy than miltefosine. The results suggest that treatment with allopurinol as a maintenance therapy is crucial for stabilizing the care of canine leishmaniosis. © 2015 Manna et al.

Ferranti P.,University of Naples Federico II | Nasi A.,University of Naples Federico II | Bruno M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Basile A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 2 more authors.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

In recent years, the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic freshwaters has been described all over the world, including most European countries. Blooms of cyanobacteria may produce mixtures of toxic secondary metabolites, called cyanotoxins. Among these, the most studied are microcystins, a group of cyclic heptapeptides, because of their potent hepatotoxicity and activity as tumour promoters. Other peptide cyanotoxins have been described whose structure and toxicity have not been thoroughly studied. Herein we present a peptidomic approach aimed to characterise and quantify the peptide cyanotoxins produced in two Italian lakes, Averno and Albano. The procedure was based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis for rapid detection and profiling of the peptide mixture complexity, combined with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of- flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) which provided unambiguous structural identification of the main compounds, as well as accurate quantitative analysis of microcystins. In the case of Lake Averno, a novel variant of microcystin-RR and two novel anabaenopeptin variants (Anabaenopeptins B1 and Anabaenopeptin F1), presenting homoarginine in place of the commonly found arginine, were detected and characterised. In Lake Albano, the peculiar peptide patterns in different years were compared, as an example of the potentiality of the peptidomic approach for fast screening analysis, prior to fine structural analysis and determination of cyanotoxins, which included six novel aeruginosin variants. This approach allows for wide range monitoring of cyanobacteria blooms, and to collect data for evaluating possible health risks to consumers, through the panel of the compounds produced along different years. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Scalco E.,Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn | Brunet C.,Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn | Marino F.,Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn | Rossi R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | And 3 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2012

The genus Ostreopsis includes several species capable of producing various palytoxin-like compounds which have harmful effects on humans and marine fauna. Species in this genus are regular members of the epiphytic community in tropical seas but their geographic range have shown an apparent expansion towards temperate regions in recent years. This is the case of the Mediterranean Sea, where Ostreopsis cf. ovata is responsible for intense blooms in summer and autumn. With the aim of describing the growth performances of O. cf. ovata, we carried out a multifactorial experiment in which strains isolated from 3 locations along the Italian coast were grown at different combinations of temperature, daylength and irradiance encompassing different seasonal conditions. Temperature constrained growth of O. cf. ovata within a window of 18-30 °C, while best performances were recorded at 22 and 26 °C. Growth was maximum at 12. h daylength, whereas it was limited by photon flux density at short daylength (9. h) and often showed photosaturation at the longest daylength (15. h). Cells with anomalous shape were found during the exponential phase at the lowest and highest temperatures, while cells with a reduced size were produced at all conditions except 18 °C. Total toxin concentration varied between the different environmental conditions and between exponential and post-exponential growth phases without a clear pattern, whereas toxin composition was less variable. Our results suggest that O. cf. ovata is adapted to intermediate temperatures and daylength conditions such as those recorded in the natural environment at the beginning of summer and/or at the beginning of autumn, when this dinoflagellate builds up its biomass along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Photosaturation instead occurs at the highest temperature and irradiance conditions, thus supporting the observations of generally lower cell abundances in late July-August. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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