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Novara di Sicilia, Italy

Zatelli A.,Clinica Veterinaria Pirani | Pierantozzi M.,Clinica Veterinaria Pirani | D'Ippolito P.,Clinica Veterinaria Pirani | Bigliati M.,Istituto Farmaceutico Candioli | And 2 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal

Chitosan and alkalinizing agents can decrease morbidity and mortality in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether this holds true in dog is not known. Objective of the study was to determine whether a commercial dietary supplement containing chitosan, phosphate binders, and alkalinizing agents (Renal), compared to placebo, reduces mortality rate due to uremic crises in dogs with spontaneous CKD, fed a renal diet (RD). A masked RCCT was performed including 31 azotemic dogs with spontaneous CKD. Dogs enrolled in the study were randomly allocated to receive RD plus placebo (group A; 15 dogs) or RD plus Renal (group B; 16 dogs). During a first 4-week period, all dogs were fed an RD and then randomized and clinically evaluated up to 44 weeks. The effects of dietary supplements on mortality rate due to uremic crises were assessed. At 44 weeks, compared to group A, dogs in group B had approximately 50% lower mortality rate due to uremic crises (P=0.015). Dietary supplementation with chitosan, phosphate binders, and alkalinizing agents, along with an RD, is beneficial in reducing mortality rate in dogs with spontaneous CKD. Copyright © 2012 Andrea Zatelli et al. Source

Roura X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Fondati A.,Clinica Veterinaria San Marco | Fondati A.,Centro Veterinario Prati | Lubas G.,University of Pisa | And 6 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

This review presents the consensus opinion of the Canine Leishmaniasis Working Group on the prognosis and monitoring of leishmaniasis in dogs. While the prognosis for both exposed and infected dogs is considered to be favourable, this changes if infection progresses to overt disease. For clinically affected animals undergoing treatment, the prognosis is dictated by the severity of the signs (and in particular the severity of renal dysfunction) when therapy is initiated; assessing the degree of proteinuria is useful in this context. Approximately 75% of dogs without evidence of renal involvement live for >4. years if adequately treated. Monitoring the response to treatment includes ongoing clinical and clinicopathological assessment, as well as quantifying serological responses and the parasite load in the patient. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Di Cesare A.,University of Teramo | Traversa D.,University of Teramo | Manzocchi S.,IDEXX Laboratories | Meloni S.,University of Teramo | And 7 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Background: The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum causes severe clinical signs in dogs. The disease is often challenging because infected animals are often presented with clinical signs overlapping those of other diseases. Methods: The present article describes six angiostrongylosis cases (Cases 1-6) that represent key examples of how canine angiostrongylosis may be extremely confounding. The six animals presented clinical signs compatible with canine angiostrongylosis but they were subjected to clinical examinations for other diseases (e.g. dirofilariosis or immune-mediated disorders) before achieving a correct diagnosis. Results: In Case 1 clinical, radiographic and ultrasound examinations' results resembled a lung neoplasia. Case 2 was a dog with a mixed infection caused by A. vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis. Case 3 was a critically ill dog presented in emergency for an acute onset of dyspnoea caused by lungworm infection. The dog died a few hours after presentation despite support and etiologic therapy. Case 4 was a dog presented for chronic hemorrhages and ecchymoses caused by thrombocytopenia of unknown origin, thought to have an inherited, immune-mediated or infective cause. Case 5 was referred for neurological signs due to a suspected discospondylitis. Case 6 was erroneously diagnosed infected only with D. immitis although the dog was infected only with A. vasorum. A timely administration of an anthelmintic (mostly moxidectin) showed to be effective in treating the infection in those dogs (i.e. Cases 1,2, 4 and 5) that did not suffer with severe lung haemorrhages yet. Conclusions: Dogs 1-5 were referred in two regions of Italy that are considered non-endemic for A. vasorum. These findings indicate that veterinarians should include angiostrongylosis in the differential diagnosis of cardio-respiratory distress also in non-endemic regions and should perform appropriate diagnostics in the presence of compatible signs even if the clinical picture is atypical. © 2015 Di Cesare et al. Source

Domenech O.,Istituto Veterinario di Novara | Oliveira P.,Davies Veterinary Specialists
Veterinary Journal

Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) allows imaging of the heart through the oesophagus using a special transducer mounted on a modified endoscope. The proximity to the heart and minimal intervening structures enables the acquisition of high-resolution images that are consistently superior to routine transthoracic echocardiography and optimal imaging of the heart base anatomy and related structures. TEE provides high-quality real-time imaging free of ionizing radiation, making it an ideal instrument not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring surgical or minimally invasive cardiac procedures, non-cardiac procedures and critical cases in the intensive care unit. In human medicine, TEE is routinely used in these settings. In veterinary medicine, TEE is increasingly used in referral centres, especially for perioperative assessment and guidance of catheter-based cardiovascular procedures, such as patent ductus arteriosus, balloon valvuloplasty, and atrial and ventricular septal defect occlusion with vascular devices. TEE can also aid in heartworm retrieval procedures. The purpose of this paper is to review the current uses of TEE in veterinary medicine, focusing on technique, indications and complications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Barachetti L.,University of Milan | Rampazzo A.,Istituto Veterinario di Novara | Mortellaro C.M.,University of Milan | Scevola S.,University of Milan | Gilger B.C.,North Carolina State University
Veterinary Ophthalmology

Purpose: To describe the use, tolerability, and efficacy of episcleral silicone matrix cyclosporine (ESMC) implants in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Methods: Retrospective study. ESMC implants (1.9 cm length, 30% wt/wt CsA in silicone; with approximately 12 mg of CsA loaded into them) were used in dogs with KCS responsive to topical CsA (good candidate, GC) or not responsive (poor candidate, PC). Ocular surface inflammation scores, Schirmer tear test (STT) values, and ocular discharge quantity were evaluated and compared. Results: Twenty-seven eyes (15 dogs) received an ESMC implant for KCS; 15 eyes were considered GC, and 12 were considered PC. Both GC eyes and PC eyes showed a significant increase in STT values (increase of 7.7 and 8.5 mm/min; P = 0.023 and P = 0.003, respectively) after placement of ESMC implants (mean follow-up 18 ± 2 and 10.4 ± 15 months, respectively). Clinical signs improved significantly in both groups during the same follow-up, with reduction in conjunctival hyperemia (P < 0.001), corneal neovascularization (P = 0.004), corneal opacity (P = 0.003), and ocular discharge (P = 0.002). ESMC implants were well tolerated by all dogs, but two eyes lost the device at 12-months and 1-week follow-up, respectively. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that the EMSC implants were well tolerated and efficacious in dogs with KCS responsive to topical CsA as well as dogs with poor response to topical therapy. Further study is needed to determine the duration of efficacy and optimal dose of CsA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists. Source

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