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Morandi F.,University of Bologna | Verin R.,University of Pisa | Sarli G.,University of Bologna | Scacco M.,Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale ex | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Wild boar (Sus scrofa ssp scrofa) is a host of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), and infection in this species has been reported in many countries. This study sampled tissues from 348 wild boars in Italy in the provinces of Bologna, Padua and Pisa. No clinical signs or macroscopic lesions were recorded in the sampled animals. Immunolocalisation for PCV-2 was performed on tissues, and viral antigen was disclosed in 38 animals, 11 immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive out of 148 (7.43%) sampled in northern Italy and 27 immunofluorescence (IF) positive out of 200 (13.5%) sampled in central Italy, respectively. Histologically, 19 cases displayed post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) histological lesions, but PCV2 was only proved in nine of them (three from Bologna and Padua by IHC and six from Pisa by IF). Animals aged 7 to 8 months were the most affected by PCV2 infection, suggesting an important role of this age class in the epidemiology of the virosis in the tested populations. Moreover, the study confirmed that wild boar can be a host of PCV-2, and showed that the virus and PMWS is widespread and endemic in wild boar in Italy as in other countries. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Scarpato A.,Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale ex | Romanelli G.,Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale ex | Galgani F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Andral B.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2010

In order to evaluate the contamination levels in the Western Mediterranean basin, the active mussel watch methodology has been applied. This methodology consists of mussel transplantation (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from non impacted areas to selected coastal areas, characterised by potential impact from the continent due to contaminating sources. The areas of interest were selected along the entire coastal development of the Western Mediterranean sea, 122 sites in total. The time of mussel caging exposure was 12 weeks. The project was co-financed in the frame of the Interreg IIIB Meddoc Programme, aimed at determining the overall chemical quality of the Mediterranean sea, consistent with the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. Several partners representative of the coastal Mediterranean Countries were involved in the Project, with the purpose of building up a common surveillance network, adopting shared methodologies. In this paper we present the results of three yearly monitoring campaigns (2004, 2005, 2006) carried out along the coasts of Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, including the coastal environment of Baleares, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The contamination levels of Pesticides (DDT and its metabolites, Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers α and γ) and Polychlorinated biphenyls, are reported and discussed. Statistical elaborations performed on the original data set were mainly aimed at validating the raw sample distributions, by means of the Johnson method. Both DD and PCB species frequency distributions have been approximated to appropriate theoretical distributions, belonging to the Log-normal and Bounded families. By integrating the related Probability Density Functions (p.d.f.), different accumulation values for DDT, DDD and DDE and PCB species have been estimated, corresponding to fixed percentage points of the area under the respective curves. By choosing appropriate probability level boundaries (33rd and 66th percentile), different regional zones have been ranked in terms of low, medium and high accumulation for Pesticides and PCBs. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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