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Papadopoulos A.,French Agency for Food | Sioen I.,Ghent University | Cubadda F.,Istituto Superiore Of Sanita National Health Institute | Ozer H.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | And 10 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2015

The objective of this article is to develop a general method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to rank the substances to be studied in a Total Diet Studies (TDS). This method was tested for different substances and groups of substances (N = 113), for which the TDS approach has been considered relevant. This work was performed by a group of 7 experts from different European countries representing their institutes, which are involved in the TDS EXPOSURE project. The AHP methodology is based on a score system taking into account experts' judgments quantified assigning comparative scores to the different identified issues. Hence, the 10 substances of highest interest in the framework of a TDS are trace elements (methylmercury, cadmium, inorganic arsenic, lead, aluminum, inorganic mercury), dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some additives (sulfites and nitrites). The priority list depends on both the national situation (geographical variations, consumer concern, etc.) and the availability of data. Thus, the list depends on the objectives of the TDS and on reachable analytical performances. Moreover, such a list is highly variable with time and new data (e.g. social context, vulnerable population groups, emerging substances, new toxicological data or health-based guidance values). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Rossi M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Cubadda F.,Istituto Superiore Of Sanita National Health Institute | Dini L.,University of Salento | Terranova M.L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Nanotechnologies are opening up new horizons in almost all scientific and technological fields. Among these, applications of nanotechnologies are expected to bring large benefits and add value to the food and food-related industries through the whole food chain, from production to processing, safety, packaging, transportation, storage and delivery. Nanotechnology consists in the realization and manipulation of nano-sized matter, the unique properties of which with respect to their bulk counterparts are illustrated and discussed. Then, the main tools and techniques routinely used in nanotechnology for the nanoscale characterization of food matrices as well as for the analytical determination of nanomaterials in food samples are reviewed. Finally, safety and risk assessment issues are discussed and an overview of applications of nanotechnology to the food sector is provided along with a description of the current regulatory framework. © 2014.

Vin K.,French Agency for Food | Papadopoulos A.,French Agency for Food | Cubadda F.,Istituto Superiore Of Sanita National Health Institute | Aureli F.,Istituto Superiore Of Sanita National Health Institute | And 13 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

A method to validate the relevance of the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach for different types of substances is described. As a first step, a list of >2800 chemicals classified into eight main groups of relevance for food safety (natural components, environmental contaminants, substances intentionally added to foods, residues, naturally occurring contaminants, process contaminants, contaminants from packaging and food contact materials, other substances) has been established. The appropriateness of the TDS approach for the different substance groups has then been considered with regard to the three essential principles of a TDS: representativeness of the whole diet, pooling of foods and food analyzed as consumed. Four criteria were considered for that purpose (i) the substance has to be present in a significant part of the diet or predominantly present in specific food groups, (ii) a robust analytical method has to be available to determine it in potential contributors to the dietary exposure of the population, and (iii) the dilution impact of pooling and (iv) the impact of everyday food preparation methods on the concentration of the substance are assessed. For most of the substances the TDS approach appeared to be relevant and any precautions to be taken are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Recordati C.,Fondazione Filarete | De Maglie M.,Fondazione Filarete | De Maglie M.,University of Milan | Bianchessi S.,Fondazione Filarete | And 14 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2016

Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterials used as antimicrobial agents for a wide range of medical and industrial applications. However toxicity of AgNPs and impact of their physicochemical characteristics in in vivo models still need to be comprehensively characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of size and coating on tissue distribution and toxicity of AgNPs after intravenous administration in mice, and compare the results with those obtained after silver acetate administration. Methods: Male CD-1(ICR) mice were intravenously injected with AgNPs of different sizes (10 nm, 40 nm, 100 nm), citrate-or polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated, at a single dose of 10 mg/kg bw. An equivalent dose of silver ions was administered as silver acetate. Mice were euthanized 24 h after the treatment, and silver quantification by ICP-MS and histopathology were performed on spleen, liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, and blood. Results: For all particle sizes, regardless of their coating, the highest silver concentrations were found in the spleen and liver, followed by lung, kidney, and brain. Silver concentrations were significantly higher in the spleen, lung, kidney, brain, and blood of mice treated with 10 nm AgNPs than those treated with larger particles. Relevant toxic effects (midzonal hepatocellular necrosis, gall bladder hemorrhage) were found in mice treated with 10 nm AgNPs, while in mice treated with 40 nm and 100 nm AgNPs lesions were milder or negligible, respectively. In mice treated with silver acetate, silver concentrations were significantly lower in the spleen and lung, and higher in the kidney than in mice treated with 10 nm AgNPs, and a different target organ of toxicity was identified (kidney). Conclusions: Administration of the smallest (10 nm) nanoparticles resulted in enhanced silver tissue distribution and overt hepatobiliary toxicity compared to larger ones (40 and 100 nm), while coating had no relevant impact. Distinct patterns of tissue distribution and toxicity were observed after silver acetate administration. It is concluded that if AgNPs become systemically available, they behave differently from ionic silver, exerting distinct and size-dependent effects, strictly related to the nanoparticulate form. © 2016 Recordati et al.

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