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Costa C.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Vandeputte M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vandeputte M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Antonucci F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 6 more authors.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

This paper demonstrates the contribution of both genetic and environmental effects on cultured European sea bass shape. We used the progeny of five populations of sea bass, in a partly diallel design, to investigate the genetics of shape (estimated with geometric morphometrics) in European sea bass. This was done using a common garden experiment with microsatellite markers assignment to parents and populations to avoid confusion between genetic and environmental effects. Additionally, one of the populations was studied over four different aquaculture facilities to investigate the effects of environment on shape. For the first time in this species, shape-related traits were linked with genetic variation. The first relative warp analysis axis clearly differentiated rearing sites, demonstrating that the main shape/weight effects are related to culturing conditions, thereby accounting for ecomorphologically related differences. The second axis strongly differentiated groups by parental origins; there was a good correlation between shape differences and geographic distances between broodstock sampling locations. High heritabilities of axes scores (0.40-0.55) showed high genetic variation for shape within populations. This study shows that variation in shape has a high genetic component in sea bass, both at the population level and within populations. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Vandeputte M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Vandeputte M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Garouste R.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Dupont-Nivet M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 12 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

Sea bass is a major species in Mediterranean aquaculture, but has a distribution area ranging from North Atlantic to South Mediterranean, with a population structure previously revealed by population genetics. To test the farming performances of wild sea bass populations, we produced a partial diallel cross mating scheme, using sires originating from North Atlantic (NAT), South Atlantic (SAT), West Mediterranean (WEM), North-East Mediterranean (NEM) and South-East Mediterranean (SEM). Fifteen sires per origin were mated in a full-factorial design using artificial fertilization with 9 NAT dams and 17 WEM dams, producing 10 population crosses and 1950 potential full-sib families. All fish were reared together, then tagged at an average weight of 20. g and distributed to four different sites (1800 fish per site). They were grown to an objective of 200. g mean weight, where 737 to 775 fish were slaughtered in each site, and their parentage was recovered using 6 to 7 microsatellite loci, resulting in 98.9% unique assignments. All populations had similar growth rates until tagging size (20. g), but differences appeared later on. No heterosis appeared for growth rate, and genotype by environment interaction (G × E) at the population level was limited, with a significant re-ranking only in one rearing site, while strong G × E for growth rate was observed within populations. Populations were different in shape, muscular fat content, and carcass yield, but not in fillet yield. In general, heterosis was absent and G × E was very limited between populations. No "ideal" population combining all favorable traits was identified. Differences between extreme populations ranged between 3 and 49% of the mean, depending on the traits. Interestingly, in almost all cases, these differences were within the reach of one generation of intense (5%) phenotypic selection. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Congiu L.,University of Padua | Pujolar J.M.,University of Padua | Forlani A.,University of Padua | Cenadelli S.,Istituto Sperimentale Lazzaro Spallanzani | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

While the current expansion of conservation genetics enables to address more efficiently the management of threatened species, alternative methods for genetic relatedness data analysis in polyploid species are necessary. Within this framework, we present a standardized and simple protocol specifically designed for polyploid species that can facilitate management of genetic diversity, as exemplified by the ex situ conservation program for the tetraploid Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A critically endangered endemic species of the Adriatic Sea tributaries, its persistence is strictly linked to the ex situ conservation of a single captive broodstock currently decimated to about 25 individuals, which represents the last remaining population of Adriatic sturgeon of certain wild origin. The genetic variability of three F1 broodstocks available as future breeders was estimated based on mitochondrial and microsatellite information and compared with the variability of the parental generation. Genetic data showed that the F1 stocks have only retained part of the genetic variation present in the original stock due to the few parent pairs used as founders. This prompts for the urgent improvement of the current F1 stocks by incorporating new founders that better represent the genetic diversity available. Following parental allocation based on band sharing values, we set up a user-friendly tool for selection of candidate breeders according to relatedness between all possible parent-pairs that secures the use of non-related individuals. The approach developed here could also be applied to other endangered tetraploid sturgeon species overexploited for caviar production, particularly in regions lacking proper infrastructure and/or expertise. © 2011 Congiu et al. Source

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