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Bassols A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Turk R.,University of Zagreb | Roncada P.,Istituto Sperimentale Italiano Lazzaro Spallanzani | Roncada P.,University of Milan
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2014

A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Minozzi G.,Polo Universitario | Buggiotti L.,Istituto Sperimentale Italiano Lazzaro Spallanzani | Buggiotti L.,University of Tuscia | Stella A.,Polo Universitario | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic enteritis in a wide range of animal species. In cattle, MAP causes a chronic disease called Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, that is not treatable and the efficacy of vaccine control is controversial. The clinical phase of the disease is characterised by diarrhoea, weight loss, drop in milk production and eventually death. Susceptibility to MAP infection is heritable with heritability estimates ranging from 0.06 to 0.10. There have been several studies over the last few years that have identified genetic loci putatively associated with MAP susceptibility, however, with the availability of genome-wide high density SNP maker panels it is now possible to carry out association studies that have higher precision. Methodology/Principal Findings: The objective of the current study was to localize genes having an impact on Johne's disease susceptibility using the latest bovine genome information and a high density SNP panel (Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip) to perform a case/control, genome-wide association analysis. Samples from MAP case and negative controls were selected from field samples collected in 2007 and 2008 in the province of Lombardy, Italy. Cases were defined as animals serologically positive for MAP by ELISA. In total 966 samples were genotyped: 483 MAP ELISA positive and 483 ELISA negative. Samples were selected randomly among those collected from 119 farms which had at least one positive animal. Conclusion/Significance: The analysis of the genotype data identified several chromosomal regions associated with disease status: a region on chromosome 12 with high significance (P<5×10-6), while regions on chromosome 9, 11, and 12 had moderate significance (P<5×10-5). These results provide evidence for genetic loci involved in the humoral response to MAP. Knowledge of genetic variations related to susceptibility will facilitate the incorporation of this information into breeding programmes for the improvement of health status. © 2010 Minozzi et al.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-01;KBBE-2007-1-1-02 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2008

Cattle-farming is one of the most important agricultural activities in the EU. This project will address issues of the health and welfare of cattle and the safety of cattle products, focussing on diseases that are on the increase in European cattle population and are aware of growing concern elsewhere. Two related diseases will be targeted, bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine para-tuberculosis (Para-TB or Johnes disease). The objective of the project is to use a combined functional and classical genomics and system biology approaches (system genetics) to investigate host-pathogen interactions and the host immune response to mycobacterium infection. The outcome will be 1) increased knowledge of macrophage function the application of this knowledge will be to develop tests to identify infected animals, and 2) the identification of genes that regulate the response of an individual to infection: information that could be applied in selective breeding programmes. Specifically the project will use functional, comparative genomics and in silico analysis to understand the genetic control of variation in the outcomes of disease challenge to develop molecular diagnosis tools to improve disease surveillance and to assist in selective improvement of breeding of cattle to control these diseases. Hence the project will impact directly on improved animal health. Healthy livestock are more productive and so the improvements achieved will contribute to improved efficiency and profitability of animal production and competitiveness of animal production and hence the sustainability of farming systems. The work will contribute both to improved animal health and welfare and also to the improved safety of animal products and to safeguarding human health. The market requirements will be assessed in order to lead the development of project outcomes to commercially viable products to ensure that the research is appropriately and efficiently exploited.

Selective breeding schemes are widely recognized as efficient means to improve aquaculture production. Compared to the individual selection, family-based selection allows a better control of inbreeding and represents the only alternative to improve disease resistance and slaughter traits. However, fish farmers are reluctant to invest in such programs due to the high requirements for space, labour and maintenance. In addition, the sib groups produced may result inadequate when the artificial fertilisation is not fully mastered. This is a limitation for the emergence of breeding programs for multiple-spawning species. However, molecular markers are presented as valid tools to enhance breeding programs, in particular for parentage inference of selection candidates reared in communal tanks. Microsatellite are the mostly used markers and the assignment of progeny is achieved with specific software. But the genotyping costs, combined with the too low assignment rate of progeny to a single parental pair, restrict their use in selection. Relying on mass spawning to implement selective breeding schemes is the challenge this project proposes to tackle. The European seabass and the gilthead seabream are the target species that will be the subject of the following research objectives: understand the spawning kinetics and propose hormonal therapies to develop mass spawning protocols allowing equalised parental contribution; develop highly informative STRs multiplexes and SNPs microchips and optimise an allocation software to maximise the rate of single match at the lower cost; optimise selection models adapted to new mating designs to get the best genetic response while controlling the rate of inbreeding. Based on the projects results, a business plan will be prepared, accompanied by a cost-effectiveness analysis of the proposed strategy. It will result in the reinforcement of existing breeding programs and the emergence of new breeding initiatives.

Memmolo P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Memmolo P.,University of Naples Federico II | Di Caprio G.,CNR Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems | Distante C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 6 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

An investigation is reported of the identification and measurement of region of interest (ROI) in quantitative phase-contrast maps of biological cells by digital holographic microscopy. In particular, two different methods have been developed for in vitro bull sperm head morphometry analysis. We show that semen analysis can be accomplished by means of the proposed techniques . Extraction and measurement of various parameters are performed. It is demonstrated that both proposed methods are efficient to skim the data set in a preselective analysis for discarding anomalous data. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

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