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Ferlazzo G.,Messina University | Moretta L.,Istituto slini
Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis | Year: 2014

Activated, mature, dendritic cells (DCs) are the main antigen-presenting cells for initiating adaptive immune responses, whereas immature DCs have been implicated in tolerance and induction of regulatory T cells. It is now well established that NK cells are able to discriminate between mature and immature DCs by killing the latter because of their low amount of surface human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. Thus, NK cells are thought to play an important regulatory role by selectively editing DCs during the course of immune responses. NK-mediated killing of immature (but not mature) DCs results in selection of immunogenic DCs during the initiation of anti-cancer immune responses. In addition to the removal of inappropriate DCs, NK cells can also shape adaptive immune responses by promoting DC maturation and infuencing the polarization of primary T-cell responses. DC-NK cell interactions should be carefully considered in DC-based cancer vaccine strategies. Optimal NK cell activation should be sought to enhance the magnitude and the quality of both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumors. © 2014 by Begell House, Inc. Source

Ruperto N.,University of Genoa | Ozen S.,Hacettepe University | Pistorio A.,IRCCS G Gaslini | Dolezalova P.,General University Hospital | And 33 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objectives: To report methodology and overall clinical, laboratory and radiographic characteristics for Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), childhood polyarteritis nodosa (c-PAN), c-Wegener granulomatosis (c-WG) and c-Takayasu arteritis (c-TA) classification criteria. Methods: The preliminary Vienna 2005 consensus conference, which proposed preliminary criteria for paediatric vasculitides, was followed by a EULAR/PRINTO/PRES - supported validation project divided into three main steps. Step 1: retrospective/prospective web-data collection for HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA, with age at diagnosis ≤18 years. Step 2: blinded classification by consensus panel of a subgroup of 280 cases (128 difficult cases, 152 randomly selected) enabling expert diagnostic verification. Step 3: Ankara 2008 Consensus Conference and statistical evaluation (sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve, κ-agreement) using as 'gold standard' the final consensus classification or original treating physician diagnosis. Results: A total of 1183/1398 (85%) samples collected were available for analysis: 827 HSP, 150 c-PAN, 60 c-WG, 87 c-TA and 59 c-other. Prevalence, signs/symptoms, laboratory, biopsy and imaging reports were consistent with the clinical picture of the four c-vasculitides. A representative subgroup of 280 patients was blinded to the treating physician diagnosis and classified by a consensus panel, with a κ-agreement of 0.96 for HSP (95% CI 0.84 to 1), 0.88 for c-WG (95% CI 0.76 to 0.99), 0.84 for c-TA (95% CI 0.73 to 0.96) and 0.73 for c-PAN (95% CI 0.62 to 0.84), with an overall κ of 0.79 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84). Conclusion: EULAR/PRINTO/PRES propose validated classification criteria for HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA, with substantial/almost perfect agreement with the final consensus classification or original treating physician diagnosis. Source

Ozen S.,Hacettepe University | Pistorio A.,IRCCS G Gaslini | Iusan S.M.,IRCCS G Gaslini | Bakkaloglu A.,Hacettepe University | And 36 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objectives: To validate the previously proposed classification criteria for Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), childhood polyarteritis nodosa (c-PAN), c-Wegener granulomatosis (c-WG) and c-Takayasu arteritis (c-TA). Methods: Step 1: retrospective/prospective webdata collection for children with HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA with age at diagnosis ≤18 years. Step 2: blinded classification by consensus panel of a representative sample of 280 cases. Step 3: statistical (sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve and κ-agreement) and nominal group technique consensus evaluations. Results: 827 patients with HSP, 150 with c-PAN, 60 with c-WG, 87 with c-TA and 52 with c-other were compared with each other. A patient was classified as HSP in the presence of purpura or petechiae (mandatory) with lower limb predominance plus one of four criteria: (1) abdominal pain; (2) histopathology (IgA); (3) arthritis or arthralgia; (4) renal involvement. Classification of c-PAN required a systemic inflammatory disease with evidence of necrotising vasculitis OR angiographic abnormalities of medium-/small-sized arteries (mandatory criterion) plus one of five criteria: (1) skin involvement; (2) myalgia/muscle tenderness; (3) hypertension; (4) peripheral neuropathy; (5) renal involvement. Classification of c-WG required three of six criteria: (1) histopathological evidence of granulomatous inflammation; (2) upper airway involvement; (3) laryngo-tracheo-bronchial involvement; (4) pulmonary involvement (x-ray/CT); (5) antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody positivity; (6) renal involvement. Classification of c-TA required typical angiographic abnormalities of the aorta or its main branches and pulmonary arteries (mandatory criterion) plus one of five criteria: (1) pulse deficit or claudication; (2) blood pressure discrepancy in any limb; (3) bruits; (4) hypertension; (5) elevated acute phase reactant. Conclusion: European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society propose validated classification criteria for HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA with high sensitivity/specificity. Source

Martino D.,University of Bari | Chiarotti F.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Buttiglione M.,University of Bari | Cardona F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 5 more authors.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2011

Aim To evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and clinical course of Tourette syndrome and group A Streptococcus (GAS). Method GAS infections, anti-streptococcal, and anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were compared between 168 patients (136 males, 32 females) with Tourette syndrome; (median [range] age [25th-75th centile] 10y [8-11y]); median Tourette syndrome duration (25th-75th centile), 3y (1y 3mo-5y 9mo) and a comparison group of 177 patients (117 males, 60 females) with epileptic or sleep disorders median age [25th-75th centile], 10y [8y-1y 6mo]). One hundred and forty-four patients with Tourette syndrome were followed up at 3-month intervals; exacerbations of tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and other psychiatric comorbidities were defined by a bootstrap procedure. The effect of new GAS infections and identification of new ABGA upon risk of exacerbation was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectionally, patients with Tourette syndrome exhibited a higher frequency of GAS infection (8% vs 2%; p=0.009), higher anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titres (246 [108-432] vs 125 [53-269]; p<0.001), and higher ABGA frequency (25% vs 8%; p<0.001) than the comparison group. On prospective analysis, ASO titres were persistently elevated in 57% of patients with Tourette syndrome; however, new infections or newly identified ABGA did not predict clinical exacerbations (all p>0.05). Interpretation Patients with Tourette syndrome might be more prone to GAS infections and develop stronger antibody responses to GAS, probably as a result of underlying immune dysregulation. New GAS infections are unlikely to exert, years after their onset, a major effect upon the severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press. Source

Morandi B.,University of Genoa | Mortara L.,University of Insubria | Chiossone L.,Istituto slini | Accolla R.S.,University of Insubria | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Over the last decade, several studies have extensively reported that activated natural killer (NK) cells can kill autologous immature dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, whereas they spare fully activated DCs. This led to the proposal that activated NK cells might select a more immunogenic subset of DCs during a protective immune response. However, there is no demonstration that autologous DC killing by NK cells is an event occurring in vivo and, consequently, the functional relevance of this killing remains elusive. Here we report that a significant decrease of CD11c+ DCs was observed in draining lymph nodes of mice inoculated with MHC-devoid cells as NK cell targets able to induce NK cell activation. This in vivo DC editing by NK cells was perforin-dependent and it was functionally relevant, since residual lymph node DCs displayed an improved capability to induce T cell proliferation. In addition, in a model of anti-cancer vaccination, the administration of MHC-devoid cells together with tumor cells increased the number of tumor-specific CTLs and resulted in a significant increase in survival of mice upon challenge with a lethal dose of tumor cells. Depletion of NK cells or the use of perforin knockout mice strongly decreased the tumor-specific CTL expansion and its protective role against tumor cell challenge. As a whole, our data support the hypothesis that NK cell-mediated DC killing takes place in vivo and is able to promote expansion of cancer-specific CTLs. Our results also indicate that cancer vaccines could be improved by strategies aimed at activating NK cells. © 2012 Morandi et al. Source

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