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Lattuada G.,University of Milan | Ragogna F.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | Perseghin G.,University of Milan
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2011

Based on the "lipotoxic" hypothesis, the free fatty acid flux from the excessive amount of adipose tissue toward the peripheral tissues would induce the development of insulin resistance especially when the triglyceride storage or the concentration of intermediate fat metabolites (diacylglycerides, ceramides) within the cytoplasm of these cells become excessive. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis. NAFLD is associated with general and intra-abdominal obesity and with a reduced ability of insulin to stimulate metabolic pathways in the liver itself and in other tissues. There are animal models and models in human diseases sustaining the hypothesis that a primary hepatic disease may determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiologic data generated on surrogate markers of NAFLD (transaminases and γ-glutamyltransferase), semiquantitative assessment of fatty liver (ultrasound), and surrogate algorithms of NAFLD also support a causative effect of NAFLD on the risk to develop T2DM. In spite of the presence of these indirect associations, a clear-cut link between NAFLD and abnormal β-cell function is yet to be reported. Therefore, more data are warranted to prove what is considered a likely causative relationship between NAFLD and T2DM. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Esser S.,Universitatsklinikum Essen | Haberl A.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Mulcahy F.,St Jamess Hospital | Golz J.,Praxis Kaiserdamm | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) 300 mg in HIV-1-infected former injecting drug users receiving opiate treatment (IVDU). Methods: European, 48-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. Patients were either antiretroviral therapy-naïve, restarting therapy after treatment discontinuation without prior virological failure or switching from existing stable treatment. Results: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and 41 patients completed treatment. In the primary analysis (intent-to-treat missing=failure) at week 48, 34% of patients (23/67; 95% CI: 23%-47%) had plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL. Using an intent-to-treat missing=excluded approach, the week 48 proportion of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL increased to 56% (23/41; 95% CI: 40%-72%). Mean (standard deviation) increase from baseline in CD4+ cell count at week 48 was 176 (242) cells/mm3. Although self-reported adherence appeared high, there were high levels of missing data and adherence results should be treated with caution. No new safety issues were identified. Conclusions: Levels of missing data were high in this difficult-to-treat population, but potent antiretroviral suppression was achieved in a substantial proportion of HIV-infected IVDU-patients. © I. Holzapfel Publishers 2011.

Donati C.,University of Florence | Donati C.,Istituto Interuniversitario Of Miologia Iim | Marseglia G.,S.O.D. di Diagnostica Genetica | Magi A.,S.O.D. di Diagnostica Genetica | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Different cells can contribute to repair following vascular injury by differentiating into smooth muscle (SM) cells; however the extracellular signals involved are presently poorly characterized. Mesoangioblasts are progenitor cells capable of differentiating into various mesoderm cell types including SM cells. In this study the biological action exerted by the pleiotropic sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in human mesoangioblasts has been initially investigated by cDNA microarray analysis. Obtained data confirmed the anti-apoptotic action of this sphingolipid and identified for the first time a strong differentiating action toward SM cells. Quantitative mRNA and protein analysis corroborated the microarray results demonstrating enhanced expression of myogenic marker proteins and regulation of the expression of transcription factor GATA6 and its co-regulator, LMCD1. Importantly, GATA6 up-regulation induced by S1P was responsible for the enhanced expression of SM-specific contractile proteins. Moreover, by specific gene silencing experiments GATA6 was critical in the pro-differentiating activity of the cytokine TGFβ. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of endogenous S1P formation in response to TGFβ abrogated GATA6 up-regulation, supporting the view that the S1P pathway plays a physiological role in mediating the pro-myogenic effect of TGFβ. This study individuates GATA6 as novel player in the complex transcriptional regulation of mesoangioblast differentiation into SM cells and highlights a role for S1P to favour vascular regeneration. © 2011 Donati et al.

Ragogna F.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | Lattuada G.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | Lattuada G.,University of Milan | Ruotolo G.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | And 5 more authors.
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2012

ApoE is a polymorphic protein involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins; the e4 allele was shown to be associated with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in age-dependent fashion mediated by unknown mechanisms. This study was undertaken to assess whether the apoE isoforms in humans were associated with normal glucose tolerance and with metabolic and inflammatory risk factors of CVD. ApoE genotype was assessed in 365 individuals. Of those, 309 were studied in the postabsorptive conditions and 142 of them also underwent a 3h-OGTT; 56 additional subjects were studied by means of the insulin clamp in combination with [6,6-2H2] glucose infusion. ApoE genotype frequencies were similar to those previously reported and were not influenced by age and BMI. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, FFA, the lipid profile, surrogate markers (HOMA-IR, OGTT-derived index) as well as the clamp-derived parameters or insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were not different by apoE genotypes. Serum adipokines concentrations (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and markers of inflammation (serum fasting hsCRP and MCP1/CCL2) were also not different by apoE genotypes. In the subgroup of young e4 carriers which underwent the clamp procedure, a higher fasting endogenous glucose production was detected. ApoE genotype was not associated with insulin resistance or altered insulin secretion, and no abnormalities in the typical circulating endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory features of the insulin resistance syndrome were detected. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Perseghin G.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | Perseghin G.,University of Milan | Calori G.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | Lattuada G.,Istituto Scientifico n Raffaele | And 10 more authors.
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2012

Type 2 diabetes is associated with risk of cancer. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance may be the link with cancer, but whether this is independent of the diabetes status, obesity/visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome is uncertain and the present study wanted to address this issue. Fifteen-year all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality data were obtained through the Regional Health Registry in 2,011 out of 2,074 Caucasian middle-aged individuals of the Cremona Study, a population study on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Italy in which anthropometric and metabolic characteristics were collected. During the 15-year observation period, 495 deaths were registered: 221 CVD related and 180 cancer related. Age and sex were independently associated with all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality rates. Age- and sex-adjusted analysis showed that HOMA-IR, cigarette smoking and diabetes were independently associated with all-cause mortality; HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure and fibrinogen were independently associated with CVD mortality; HOMA-IR and smoking habit were independently associated with cancer mortality. Individuals in the highest quintile of serum insulin had a 62% higher risk of cancer mortality (HR = 1.62 95% CI: 1.19-2.20; P<0.0022) and 161% higher risk of gastrointestinal cancer mortality (HR = 2.61 95% CI: 1.73-3.94; P<0.0001). Age- and sex-adjusted analysis showed that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance is associated with cancer mortality independently of diabetes, obesity/visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

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