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Scacco A.,University of Catania | Verzera A.,Messina University | Lanza C.M.,University of Catania | Sparacio A.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2010

The influence of soil salinity on the chemical composition, volatile aromatic compounds, and sensory characteristics of Nero d'Avola wine was examined. Data on vineyard productivity, such as grape yield, are also reported. Physicochemical parameters were determined on the samples analyzed. Solid-phase microextraction was used for the extraction of aromatic volatile compounds, followed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensory analyses were performed by visual inspection, smelling, and tasting. Statistical analysis showed that most of the physicochemical parameters and volatile constituents, both primary and fermentation aromas, were influenced by the soil salinity. The composition differences observed among the samples had little influence on the sensory characteristics; the increase in soil salinity enhanced color intensity, purple reflexes, salty, citrus, and fruit in the aroma. Results indicate that Nero d'Avola vine may be well suited to increased soil salinity, even given reduced plant productivity. © 2010 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved. Source

Scacco A.,University of Catania | Oliva D.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Di Maio S.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Polizzotto G.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | And 5 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

The present paper deals with three new strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated in old wineries of Sicily, which were microbiologically and molecularly characterized and tested for their ability to produce white wines. Examined in terms of their growth pattern, fermentation vigour, sulphite tolerance, fermentative power, spore formation, and production of acetic acid, hydrogen sulphide and phenolic off-flavours, the strains were utilized as starters in experimental fermentations of musts obtained from the cultivars Inzolia, Grillo and Catarratto. Further, the three musts were also fermented using two commercial S. cerevisiae strains. The quality of the wines produced was confirmed by their principal oenochemical parameters, by sensory analysis and qualitative and quantitative determination of the volatile aroma constituents. All the data were statistically elaborated. Interestingly, the new selected yeasts were able to increase the pear notes (Z)-ethyl-4-decenoate, (E)-ethyl-3-decenoate, and (Z)-ethyl-3-decenoate which are fundamental for the aroma of these Sicilian wines. From our results, the new yeast strains were found to produce white wines of a quality which was not inferior to those obtainable with the best commercial strains selected in other geographical areas, but also with a distinctive aromatic profile. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Di Maio S.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Genna G.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Gandolfo V.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Amore G.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | And 3 more authors.
South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of C. zemplinina yeasts in Sicilian musts and grapes and to identify strains of oenological interest. We report on the taxonomical reclassification of Candida yeast isolates from Sicilian musts and on the selection of one strain of oenological interest (Cz3), based on mixed micro-fermentation experiments in sterile Nero d'Avola musts. Our results show that Candida zemplinina is abundant in Sicilian grapes and musts, and that the Cz3 strain is suitable for Candida zemplinina/Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermentations. The higher glycerol content and the lower ethanol level stood out as the most promising features of the wines obtained upon sequential inoculation of the Cz3 and (S. cerevisiae) NDA21 yeast starters. We therefore have isolated a Sicilian Cz strain endowed with very promising features for the future development of mixed fermentation protocols. Source

Di Maio S.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Polizzotto G.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Polizzotto G.,University of Palermo | Planeta D.,University of Palermo | Oliva D.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino
South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2011

This paper presents a simple method to distinguish between Candida stellata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts during microbiological analyses. The method is based on differential yeast growth on a medium containing cycloheximide and a medium containing lysine as only nitrogen source (lysine agar). The cycloheximide resistance of 45 yeast strains belonging to Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Zygoascus hellenicus, and 14 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus on WL nutrient agar, was assayed. Cycloheximide resistance is characteristic of the species H. uvarum, H. guilliermondii and Z. hellenicus, while for the other yeasts it depends on the strain and the concentration of cycloheximide used. Two mg/L of cycloheximide allows selective counting of a strain of C. stellata (Cs3) compared to one of the sensitive S. cerevisiae strain (NDA21). Similar results can be obtained on lysine agar, but counts are reliable only with the additional spreading of a monolayer of Saccharomyces cells. The different cycloheximide resistance of C. stellata and S. cerevisiae can be used in the microbiological analysis of mixed cultures to monitor the individual growth of the two yeast species. This method can be applied to the study of mixed fermentations with other non-Saccharomyces species. The modifed use of lysine agar is useful to a certain extent in the distinction of multistarter yeasts from the indigenous yeasts. Source

Di Maio S.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Polizzotto G.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Di Gangi E.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | Foresta G.,Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. © 2012 Di Maio et al. Source

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