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Novo C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Arnoult N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Arnoult N.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Bordes W.-Y.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 5 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

In contrast with the limited sequence divergence accumulated after separation of higher primate lineages, marked cytogenetic variation has been associated with the genome evolution in these species. Studying the impact of such structural variations on defined molecular processes can provide valuable insights on how genome structural organization contributes to organismal evolution. Here, we show that telomeres on chromosome arms carrying subtelomeric heterochromatic caps in the chimpanzee, which are completely absent in humans, replicate later than telomeres on chromosome arms without caps. In gorilla, on the other hand, a proportion of the subtelomeric heterochromatic caps present in most chromosome arms are associated with large blocks of telomere-like sequences that follow a replication program different from that of bona fide telomeres. Strikingly, telomere-containing RNA accumulates extrachromosomally in gorilla mitotic cells, suggesting that at least some aspects of telomere-containing RNA biogenesis have diverged in gorilla, perhaps in concert with the evolution of heterochromatic caps in this species. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Celio L.,Medical Oncology Unit 2 | Frustaci S.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Denaro A.,Medical Oncology Unit 2 | Buonadonna A.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | And 9 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

Purpose: A phase III trial assessed the efficacy of palonosetron plus dexamethasone given once in preventing acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following a broad range of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens. Methods: This multicentre, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial evaluated two different treatment groups. One group received palonosetron (0.25 mg intravenously) and dexamethasone (8 mg intravenously) before chemotherapy, while the other was administered the same regimen on day 1 followed by dexamethasone 8 mg orally on days 2 and 3. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication) during the overall phase (days 1-5 after chemotherapy initiation). The non-inferiority margin was predefined as a 15% difference between groups in the primary endpoint. Results: Of 332 chemotherapy-naïve patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 65.1% were female, and 35.2% received anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC)-based regimens. Overall CR rates were 67.5% for those administered dexamethasone only on day 1 (n=166), and 71.1% for those also administered dexamethasone on days 2 and 3 (n=166; difference -3.6% (95% confidence interval, -13.5 to 6.3)). CR rates were not significantly different between groups during the acute (0-24 h post-chemotherapy; 88.6% versus 84.3%; P=0.262) and delayed phases (days 2-5; 68.7% versus 77.7%; P=0.116). Conclusions: Palonosetron plus single-dose dexamethasone administered before common MEC regimens provide protection against acute and delayed CINV which is non-inferior to that of palonosetron plus dexamethasone for 3 days. However, the major benefit of the single-day regimen occurs in patients receiving non-AC MEC regimens. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Cianfarani F.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Molecolare E Cellulare | Toietta G.,Laboratory of Vascular Pathology | Di Rocco G.,Istituto Regina Elena | Di Rocco G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Regenerative Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2013

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are gaining increasing consideration in tissue repair therapeutic application. Recent evidence indicates that ASCs enhance skin repair in animal models of impaired wound healing. To assess the therapeutic activity of autologous vs. allogeneic ASCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, we functionally characterized diabetic ASCs and investigated their potential to promote wound healing with respect to nondiabetic ones. Adipose tissue-derived cells from streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice were analyzed either freshly isolated as stromal vascular fraction (SVF), or following a single passage of culture (ASCs). Diabetic ASCs showed decreased proliferative potential and migration. Expression of surface markers was altered in diabetic SVF and cultured ASCs, with a reduction in stem cell marker-positive cells. ASCs from diabetic mice released lower amounts of hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and insulin-like growth factor-1, growth factors playing important roles in skin repair. Accordingly, the supernatant of diabetic ASCs manifested reduced capability to promote keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation and migration. Therapeutic potential of diabetic SVF administered to wounds of diabetic mice was blunted as compared with cells isolated from nondiabetic mice. Our data indicate that diabetes alters ASC intrinsic properties and impairs their function, thus affecting therapeutic potential in the autologous treatment for diabetic ulcers. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society. Source

Castro-Vega L.J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Jouravleva K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ortiz-Montero P.,National University of Colombia | Liu W.-Y.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 6 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2015

There is a well-established association between aging and the onset of metastasis. Although the mechanisms through which age impinges upon the malignant phenotype remain uncharacterized, the role of a senescent microenvironment has been emphasized. We reported previously that human epithelial cells that undergo telomere-driven chromosome instability (T-CIN) display global microRNA (miR) deregulation and develop migration and invasion capacities. Here, we show that post-crisis cells are not able to form tumors unless a senescent microenvironment is provided. The characterization of cell lines established from such tumors revealed that these cells have acquired cell autonomous tumorigenicity, giving rise to heterogeneous tumors. Further experiments demonstrate that explanted cells, while displaying differences in cell differentiation markers, are all endowed of enhanced stem cell properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. Treatments of T-CIN+ cells with senescence-conditioned media induce sphere formation exclusively in cells with senescence-associated tumorigenicity, a capacity that depends on miR-145 repression. These results indicate that the senescent microenvironment, while promoting further transdifferentiations in cells with genome instability, is able to propel the progression of premalignant cells towards a malignant, cell stem-like state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Oliva P.,TOP Srl | Roncoroni C.,TOP Srl | Radaelli E.,University of Milan | Brunialti E.,TOP Srl | And 8 more authors.
Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2013

Introduction: "Tissue-selective estrogen complex" or TSEC is a novel concept of estrogen replacement therapy for the postmenopause based on the combined use of estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The aim of this study was to exploit the potential of a novel transgenic mouse where luciferase expression is associated with cell proliferation (the MITOluc mouse) to investigate cell proliferation in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues in mice exposed to repetitive treatments with TSEC. Material and Methods: Ovariectomized MITO-Luc mice were subjected to a daily oral treatment with bazedoxifene, conjugated estrogen (CE), TSEC, or raloxifene for 21 days. During the treatment, the proliferative effects of treatments were monitored by bioluminescence-based in vivo imaging. At the end of the treatment, mice were euthanized and cell proliferation assessed in selected tissues by quantitative analysis of luciferase activity and by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In uterus treatment with CE, but not TSEC, induced a large increase in luciferase activity underlying the proliferative effect of the hormone. No accumulation of luciferase was observed in other organs and tissues target of estrogen action. We observed an increase of Ki67 immunoreactivity only in the uterus of mice treated with CE. Conclusion: Pairing of an SERM with estrogens results in a complete blockage of CE proliferative effects in uterus and the absence of any undesired proliferative effects in other organs; moreover, the MITO-Luc mouse is an efficacious tool for the global, rapid, and reliable analysis of drug-induced proliferation. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

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