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Kovacs D.,San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute | Cardinali G.,San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute | Aspite N.,San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute | Cota C.,San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2010

Background Cutaneous pigmentation is regulated by a complex melanogenic network in which both keratinocytes and fibroblasts synthesize growth factors and cytokines. Solar lentigo (SL) is characterized by hyperpigmented lesions occurring on photodamaged skin areas. Despite the association of SL to ultraviolet (UV) exposure, the mechanisms underlying the development of these spots are not completely defined. Objectives To analyse the involvement of the fibroblast-derived growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in SL hyperpigmentation; to evaluate whether the photoageing process occurring in fibroblasts could be responsible for the altered expression of these cytokines; and to investigate a new possible role of KGF in regulating pigmentation through the specific induction of melanogenic cytokines by keratinocytes. Methods We performed immunohistochemical analysis of HGF, KGF and SCF on SL biopsies. We analysed the mRNA expression of these cytokines using an in vitro model of photoageing induced on fibroblasts. Finally, we evaluated the effects of KGF on the expression of melanogenic cytokines at the mRNA and protein levels on keratinocytes. Results We found positive staining for HGF, KGF and SCF in the upper dermis of SL lesions and a significant induction of the three cytokines in photoaged fibroblasts. We also demonstrated the contribution of KGF to pigmentation, showing its ability specifically to modulate the expression of SCF in keratinocytes. Conclusions Fibroblasts may be persistently activated by UV exposure to release melanogenic growth factors; this inducible cytokine network acts both directly and indirectly through keratinocytes and may contribute to the hyperpigmentation of SL. © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

Michelini Z.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Galluzzo C.M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Negri D.R.M.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Diseases | Leone P.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2010

Macrophages represent an important site for productive infection of HIV-1 and the evaluation of integrase (IN) inhibitors on this cell subset is of fundamental importance. In this report, preclinical evaluation of IN inhibitors on primary human macrophages was attempted successfully using a 96-well microtiter phenotypic assay developed recently for the evaluation of IN inhibitors in a cell-based system by taking advantage of HIV-derived lentiviral vectors expressing luciferase. IN inhibitors were also tested using a lentiviral vector containing an IN with introduced T66I/S153Y mutations, known to affect the activity of azido-group-containing diketo acid (DKA) IN inhibitors. Utilizing different classes of HIV integrase inhibitors against the wild-type IN and the mutant mentioned above, some of the IN inhibitors used were also active on this particular mutant, suggesting that should HIV-1 develop additional or different mutations to become resistant to such anti-IN drugs, new drugs can be developed with a better resistance profile. This assay provides a standardized method for the preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of IN inhibitors on wild-type and mutated IN that can be adapted easily for the evaluation of anti-IN activity on IN sequences derived from patients. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Annese V.,University of Murcia | Barcia C.,University of Murcia | Ros-Bernal F.,University of Murcia | Gomez A.,University of Murcia | And 6 more authors.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Aims: Mice and nonhuman primates administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) represent elective experimental models of Parkinsonism, in which degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with prominent neuroinflammation, characterized by activated microglia and astrocytes in both substantia nigra (SN) and striatum. To date, it is unknown whether oligodendrocytes play a role in these events. Methods: We performed a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of oligodendrocyte-associated changes induced by acute and chronic MPTP treatment, in the SN and striatum of mice and macaques respectively. Oligodendrocytes were immunolabelled by cell-specific markers and analysed by confocal microscopy. Results: In both experimental models, MPTP treatment induces an increase in oligodendrocyte cell number and average size, as well as in the total area occupied by this cell type per tissue section, accompanied by evident morphological changes. This multifaceted array of changes, herein referred to as oligodendrogliosis, significantly correlates with the reduction in the level of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum. Conclusions: This event, associated with early damage of the dopaminergic neurone axons and of the complex striatal circuits of which they are part, may result in an important, although neglected, aspect in the onset and progression of Parkinsonism. © 2012 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2012 British Neuropathological Society. Source

Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti and Emory University | Date: 2012-11-08

This disclosure relates to compounds, compositions and methods of epigenetically transforming cells. In certain embodiments, the disclosure relates to methods of generating epigenetically altered cells comprising mixing isolated cells with compositions disclosed herein under conditions such that epigenetically altered cells are formed. In certain embodiments, the disclosure contemplates inducing cells, such as adult somatic cells or cells that are not naturally pluripotent, into cells with chemically induce pluripotency. In certain embodiments, the disclosure contemplates certain compounds disclosed herein, compounds disclosed herein optionally substituted with one or more substituents, derivatives, or salts thereof, for these purposes.

Olagnier D.,McGill University | Amatore D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Castiello L.,Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti | Ferrari M.,Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2016

Dengue is the leading mosquito-transmitted viral infection in the world. There are more than 390 million new infections annually; while the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or develop a self-limited dengue fever, up to 1 million clinical cases develop severe manifestations, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome, resulting in ~. 25,000 deaths annually, mainly in children. Gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to dengue infection and immunopathogenesis have hampered the development of vaccines and antiviral agents. Some of these limitations are highlighted by the explosive re-emergence of another arthropod-borne flavivirus-Zika virus-spread by the same vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito, that also carries dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. This review will discuss the early virus-host interactions in dengue infection, with emphasis on the interrelationship between oxidative stress and innate immune pathways, and will provide insight as to how lessons learned from dengue research may expedite therapeutic strategies for Zika virus. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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