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Manenti R.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | Brambilla M.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | Brambilla M.,University of Turin | Petesi M.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Memory is the capacity to store, maintain, and retrieve events or information from the mind. Difficulties in verbal episodic memory commonly occur in healthy aging. In this paper, we assess the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or over the parietal cortex (PARC) could facilitate verbal episodic memory in a group of 32 healthy older adults and in a group of 32 young subjects relative to a sham stimulation using a single-blind randomized controlled design. Each participant underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right) and one session of sham stimulation. Overall, our results demonstrated that, in young and in older subjects, anodal tDCS applied during the retrieval phase facilitates verbal episodic memory. In particular, we found that tDCS applied over the left and right regions (DLPFC and PARC) induced better performance in young participants; only tDCS applied over the left regions (DLPFC and PARC) increased retrieval in older subjects. These results suggest that anodal tDCS can be a relevant tool to modulate the long-term episodic memory capacities of young and older subjects. © 2013 Manenti, Brambilla, Petesi, Ferrari and Cotelli.

Lasalvia A.,University of Verona | Zoppei S.,University of Verona | Van Bortel T.,Kings College London | Bonetto C.,University of Verona | And 112 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background Depression is the third leading contributor to the worldwide burden of disease. We assessed the nature and severity of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by adults with major depressive disorder worldwide. Moreover, we investigated whether experienced discrimination is related to clinical history, provision of health care, and disclosure of diagnosis and whether anticipated discrimination is associated with disclosure and previous experiences of discrimination. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, people with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder were interviewed in 39 sites (35 countries) worldwide with the discrimination and stigma scale (version 12; DISC-12). Other inclusion criteria were ability to understand and speak the main local language and age 18 years or older. The DISC-12 subscores assessed were reported discrimination and anticipated discrimination. Multivariable regression was used to analyse the data. Findings 1082 people with depression completed the DISC-12. Of these, 855 (79%) reported experiencing discrimination in at least one life domain. 405 (37%) participants had stopped themselves from initiating a close personal relationship, 271 (25%) from applying for work, and 218 (20%) from applying for education or training. We noted that higher levels of experienced discrimination were associated with several lifetime depressive episodes (negative binomial regression coeffi cient 0·20 [95% CI 0·09-0·32], p=0·001); at least one lifetime psychiatric hospital admission (0·29 [0·15-0·42], p=0·001); poorer levels of social functioning (widowed, separated, or divorced 0·10 [0·01-0·19], p=0·032; unpaid employed 0·34 [0·09-0·60], p=0·007; looking for a job 0·26 [0·09-0·43], p=0·002; and unemployed 0·22 [0·03-0·41], p=0·022). Experienced discrimination was also associated with lower willingness to disclose a diagnosis of depression (mean discrimination score 4·18 [SD 3·68] for concealing depression vs 2·25 [2·65] for disclosing depression; p<0·0001). Anticipated discrimination is not necessarily associated with experienced discrimination because 147 (47%) of 316 participants who anticipated discrimination in fi nding or keeping a job and 160 (45%) of 353 in their intimate relationships had not experienced discrimination. Interpretation Discrimination related to depression acts as a barrier to social participation and successful vocational integration. Non-disclosure of depression is itself a further barrier to seeking help and to receiving eff ective treatment. This fi nding suggests that new and sustained approaches are needed to prevent stigmatisation of people with depression and reduce the eff ects of stigma when it is already established. Funding European Commission, Directorate General for Health and Consumers, Public Health Executive Agency.

Moretti D.V.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | Paternico D.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | Binetti G.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | Zanetti O.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | Frisoni G.B.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Objective: Temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio. Difference of cortical thickness among the groups was estimated. Pearson's r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment. Results: High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical gray matter volume reduction of 471 mm2 than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p < 0.001). Upper/low alpha group showed a similar but less marked pattern (160 mm2) of cortical thinning when compared to middle upper/low alpha power ratio group (p < 0.001). Moreover, high upper/low alpha group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Finally, in high upper/low alpha group temporo-parietal cortical thickness was correlated to memory performance. No significant cortical thickness differences was found between middle and low alpha3/alpha2 power ratio groups. Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning and memory impairment in MCI subjects. The combination of EEG upper/low alpha ratio and cortical thickness measure could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to AD dementia and may be of value in clinical context. © 2013 Moretti, Paternicò, Binetti, Zanetti and Frisoni.

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