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Crisafulli C.,University of Bologna | Crisafulli C.,Messina University | Fabbri C.,University of Bologna | Porcelli S.,University of Bologna | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Up to 60% of depressed patients do not respond completely to antidepressants (ADs) and up to 30% do not respond at all. Genetic factors contribute for about 50% of the AD response. During the recent years the possible influence of a set of candidate genes as genetic predictors of AD response efficacy was investigated by us and others. They include the cytochrome P450 superfamily, the P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the tryptophan hydroxylase, the catechol-Omethyltransferase, the monoamine oxidase A, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the norepinephrine transporter, the dopamine transporter, variants in the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3A, 5-HT3B, and 5-HT6), adrenoreceptor beta-1 and alpha-2, the dopamine receptors (D2), the G protein beta 3 subunit, the corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2), the glucocorticoid receptors, the c-AMP response-element binding, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Marginal associations were reported for angiotensin I converting enzyme, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput protein, glutamatergic system, nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1-beta gene. In conclusion, gene variants seem to influence human behavior, liability to disorders and treatment response. Nonetheless, gene × environment interactions have been hypothesized to modulate several of these effects. © 2011 Crisafulli, Fabbri, Porcelli, Drago, Spina, De Ronchi and Serretti. Source

Delle Monache S.,University of LAquila | Sanita P.,University of LAquila | Trapasso E.,Messina University | Ursino M.R.,Messina University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Based on the growing deal of data concerning the biological activity of flavonoid-rich natural products, the aim of the present study was to explore in vitro the potential anti-tumoral activity of Citrus Bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ), determining its molecular interaction with cancer cells. Here we show that BJ reduced growth rate of different cancer cell lines, with the maximal growth inhibition observed in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) after 72 hs of exposure to 5% BJ. The SH-SY5Y antiproliferative effect elicited by BJ was not due to a cytotoxic action and it did not induce apoptosis. Instead, BJ stimulated the arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and determined a modification in cellular morphology, causing a marked increase of detached cells. The inhibition of adhesive capacity on different physiologic substrates and on endothelial cells monolayer were correlated with an impairment of actin filaments, a reduction in the expression of the active form of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that in turn caused inhibition of cell migration. In parallel, BJ seemed to hinder the association between the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and FAK. Our data suggest a mechanisms through which BJ can inhibit important molecular pathways related to cancer-associated aggressive phenotype and offer new suggestions for further studies on the role of BJ in cancer treatment. © 2013 Delle Monache et al. Source

Impellizzeri D.,Messina University | Mazzon E.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo | Paterniti I.,Messina University | Esposito E.,Messina University | Cuzzocrea S.,Messina University
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Rho kinase (ROK) may play an important role in regulating the biological events of cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival/death. Blockade of ROK promotes axonal regeneration and neuron survival in vivo and in vitro, thereby exhibiting potential clinical applications in spinal cord damage and stroke. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the role of ROK signaling pathways in the inflammatory response, in particular in the secondary injury associated with the experimental model of spinal cord trauma. The injury was induced by application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5 to T8 laminectomy in mice. Fasudil was administered in mice (10 mg/kg i.p.) 1 and 6 h after the trauma. The treatment with fasudil significantly decreased 1) histological damage; 2) motor recovery; 3) nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression; 4) ROK activity; 5) inflammasome activation (caspase-1 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 expression); 6) production of proinflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β (IL-1β); 7) neutrophil infiltration; 8) nitrotyrosine and poly-ADP-ribose formation; 9) glial fibrillary acidic protein expression; 10) apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining, FAS ligand expression, and Bax and Bcl-2 expression); and 11) mitogen-activated protein kinase activation (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase expression). Our results indicate that inhibition of ROK by fasudil may represent a useful therapeutic perspective in the treatment of inflammation associated with spinal cord trauma. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

Impellizzeri D.,Messina University | Esposito E.,Messina University | Mazzon E.,Istituto Of Ricovero ra rattere Scientifico Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo | Paterniti I.,Messina University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, on the modulation of the inflammatory response in mice subjected to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in mice by an intradermal injection of 100 μl of an emulsion containing 100 μg of bovine type II collagen (CII) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at the base of the tail. On day 21, a second injection of CII in CFA was administered. Mice developed erosive hind paw arthritis when immunized with CII in CFA. Macroscopic clinical evidence of CIA first appeared as periarticular erythema and edema in the hind paws. The incidence of CIA was 100% by day 28 in the CII-challenged mice and the severity of CIA progressed over a 35-day period with resorption of bone. The histopathology of CIA included erosion of the cartilage at the joint. Treatment with oleuropein aglycone starting at the onset of arthritis (day 25) ameliorated the clinical signs at days 26 to 35 and improved histological status in the joint and paw. The degree of oxidative and nitrosative damage was also significantly reduced in oleuropein aglycone-treated mice. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines were also significantly reduced by oleuropein aglycone. In addition, we have confirmed the beneficial effects of oleuropein aglycone on an experimental model of CIA in a therapeutic regimen of posttreatment, with treatment started at day 28, demonstrating that oleuropein aglycone exerts an anti-inflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and ameliorates the tissue damage associated with CIA. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

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