Pagano G.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione scalecancer Research Center At Mercogliano Crom Irccs |
Talamanca A.A.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione scalecancer Research Center At Mercogliano Crom Irccs |
Castello G.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione scalecancer Research Center At Mercogliano Crom Irccs |
Cordero M.D.,University of Seville |
And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014
An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and L-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.