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Fiaschi T.,University of Florence | Tedesco F.S.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Tedesco F.S.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Giannoni E.,University of Florence | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2010

Mesoangioblasts are progenitor endowed with multipotent mesoderm differentiation ability. Despite the promising results obtained with mesoangioblast transplantation in muscle dystrophy, an improvement of their efficient engrafting and survival within damaged muscles, as well as their ex vivo activation/expansion and commitment toward myogenic lineage, is highly needed and should greatly increase their therapeutic potential. We show that globular adiponectin, an adipokine endowed with metabolic and differentiating functions for muscles, regulates vital cues of mesoangioblast cell biology. The adipokine drives mesoangioblasts to entry cell cycle and strongly counteracts the apoptotic process triggered by growth factor withdrawal, thereby serving as an activating and prosurvival stem cell factor. In addition, adiponectin provides a specific protection against anoikis, the apoptotic death due to lack of anchorage to extracellular matrix, suggesting a key protective role for these nonresident stem cells after systemic injection. Finally, adiponectin behaves as a chemoattractive factor toward mature myotubes and stimulates their differentiation toward the skeletal muscle lineage, serving as a positive regulator in mesoangioblast homing to injured or diseased muscles. We conclude that adiponectin exerts several advantageous effects on mesoangioblasts, potentially valuable to improve their efficacy in cell based therapies of diseased muscles. © 2010 by The American Society for Cell Biology. Source

Donati C.,University of Florence | Donati C.,Istituto Interuniversitario Of Miologia Iim | Marseglia G.,S.O.D. di Diagnostica Genetica | Magi A.,S.O.D. di Diagnostica Genetica | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Different cells can contribute to repair following vascular injury by differentiating into smooth muscle (SM) cells; however the extracellular signals involved are presently poorly characterized. Mesoangioblasts are progenitor cells capable of differentiating into various mesoderm cell types including SM cells. In this study the biological action exerted by the pleiotropic sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in human mesoangioblasts has been initially investigated by cDNA microarray analysis. Obtained data confirmed the anti-apoptotic action of this sphingolipid and identified for the first time a strong differentiating action toward SM cells. Quantitative mRNA and protein analysis corroborated the microarray results demonstrating enhanced expression of myogenic marker proteins and regulation of the expression of transcription factor GATA6 and its co-regulator, LMCD1. Importantly, GATA6 up-regulation induced by S1P was responsible for the enhanced expression of SM-specific contractile proteins. Moreover, by specific gene silencing experiments GATA6 was critical in the pro-differentiating activity of the cytokine TGFβ. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of endogenous S1P formation in response to TGFβ abrogated GATA6 up-regulation, supporting the view that the S1P pathway plays a physiological role in mediating the pro-myogenic effect of TGFβ. This study individuates GATA6 as novel player in the complex transcriptional regulation of mesoangioblast differentiation into SM cells and highlights a role for S1P to favour vascular regeneration. © 2011 Donati et al. Source

Calise S.,University of Florence | Blescia S.,University of Florence | Cencetti F.,University of Florence | Cencetti F.,Istituto Interuniversitario Of Miologia Iim | And 6 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2012

Satellite cells are resident stem cells of skeletal muscle; they are normally quiescent but upon post-trauma activation start to proliferate and fuse with damaged fibers contributing to muscle regeneration. In this study the effect of the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) on the proliferative and migratory response of murine satellite cells has been examined. S1P was found to stimulate labeled thymidine incorporation in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner. Moreover, by employing selective S1P receptor agonists and antagonists and silencing individual S1P receptors, the mitogenic action of S1P in satellite cells was shown to depend on S1P 2 and S1P 3. Notably, by using different experimental approaches S1P was found to positively influence satellite cell migration, necessary for their recruitment at the site of muscle damage. Interestingly, the specific silencing of individual S1P receptor subtypes demonstrated the pivotal role of S1P 1 and S1P 4 in mediating the S1P migratory effect. This latter result demonstrates for the first time that S1P 4 receptor has a role in skeletal muscle cells, supporting the notion that this receptor subtype plays a biological action broader than that so far identified in lymphoid tissue. On the contrary, S1P 2 was found to negatively regulate cell migration. Collectively, these results are in favour of an important function of S1P in satellite cell biology that could in principle be exploited as novel pharmacological target for improving skeletal muscle regeneration. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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