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Milano, Italy

A simple weighted prognostic algorithm, based on capillaroscopy and autoantibodies, is developed to classify patients at different risk of transition from isolated RP to SSc within 5 years from the screening visit. Two hundred and eighty-eight of 768 patients with isolated RP who underwent capillaroscopy were recruited. The prognostic contributions of capillaroscopic findings (giant loops, haemorrhages and the number of capillaries) and SSc-associated autoantibodies (ACAs, anti-topo I and ANAs) were assessed in a semi-parametric regression models suitable for competing risks. A prognostic index was built by a bagging technique. A structured tree approach was used to extract simple classificatory rules that can be directly interpreted. Thirty-four transitions from isolated RP to SSc and 42 to other CTDs were observed. All of the chosen variables had a substantial prognostic impact. A complex non-linear prognostic pattern was observed for capillaries, with the risk of developing SSc increasing as the number of loops decreased. The presence of ANAs had a strong impact on prognosis [hazard ratio (HR) = 9.70], which was increased by the presence of ACA (HR = 3.94; P < 0.001). A weighted prognostic classification for the development of SSc was constructed using capillary number, giant loops and ANAs. The prognostic discrimination was satisfactory (Harrell's C-index = 0.86). Our prognostic model is based on easy-to-obtain features (i.e. the number of capillaries, giant loops and ANAs) and could be used to facilitate clinical decision making in the screening phase, and may also have important implications for stratifying patients into risk groups for future clinical assessment. Source


Ferrari S.,Chemotherapy Unit | Perut F.,Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory | Fagioli F.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | Brach Del Prever A.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Major goals in translational oncology are to reduce systemic toxicity of current anticancer strategies and improve effectiveness. An extremely efficient cancer cell mechanism to avoid and/or reduce the effects of highly cytotoxic drugs is the establishment of an acidic microenvironment, an hallmark of all malignant tumors. The H + -rich milieu that anticancer drugs meet once they get inside the tumor leads to their protonation and neutralization, therefore hindering their access into tumor cells. We have previously shown that proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may efficiently counterattack this tumor advantage leading to a consistent chemosensitization of tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of PPI in chemosensitizing osteosarcoma.Method: MG-63 and Saos-2 cell lines were used as human osteosarcoma models. Cell proliferation after pretreatment with PPI and subsequent treatment with cisplatin was evaluated by using erythrosin B dye vital staining. Tumour growth was evaluated in xenograft treated with cisplatin after PPI pretreatment. Subsequently, a multi-centre historically controlled trial, was performed to evaluate the activity of a pre-treatment administration of PPIs as chemosensitizers during neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on methotrexate, cisplatin, and adriamycin.Results: Preclinical experiments showed that PPI sensitize both human osteosarcoma cell lines and xenografts to cisplatin. A clinical study subsequently showed that pretreatment with PPI drug esomeprazole leads to an increase in the local effect of chemotherapy, as expressed by percentage of tumor necrosis. This was particularly evident in chondroblastic osteosarcoma, an histological subtype that normally shows a poor histological response. Notably, no significant increase in toxicity was recorded in PPI treated patients.Conclusion: This study provides the first evidence that PPI may be beneficially added to standard regimens in combination to conventional chemotherapy. © 2013 Ferrari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Ferrari S.,Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli | Ruggieri P.,Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli | Cefalo G.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori | Tamburini A.,Ospedale Meyer | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: We compared two chemotherapy regimens that included methotrexate (MTX), cisplatin (CDP), and doxorubicin (ADM) with or without ifosfamide (IFO) in patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity. Patients and Methods: Patients age ≤ 40 years randomly received regimens with the same cumulative doses of drugs (ADM 420 mg/m 2, MTX 120 g/m 2, CDP 600 mg/m 2, and IFO 30 g/m 2) but with different durations (arm A, 44 weeks; arm B, 34 weeks). IFO was given postoperatively when pathologic response to MTX-CDP-ADM was poor (arm A) or given in the primary phase of chemotherapy with MTX-CDP-ADM (arm B). End points of the study included pathologic response to preoperative chemotherapy, toxicity, and survival. Given the feasibility of accrual, the statistical plan only permitted detection of a 15% difference in 5-year overall survival (OS). Results: From April 2001 to December 2006, 246 patients were enrolled. Two hundred thirty patients (94%) underwent limb salvage surgery (arm A, 92%; arm B, 96%; P = .5). Chemotherapy-induced necrosis was good in 45% of patients (48% in arm A, 42% in arm B; P = .3). Four patients died of treatment-related toxicity (arm A, n = 1; arm B, n = 3). A significantly higher incidence of hematologic toxicity was reported in arm B. With a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 1 to 104 months), 5-year OS and event-free survival (EFS) rates were not significantly different between arm A and arm B, with OS being 73% (95% CI, 65% to 81%) in arm A and 74% (95% CI, 66% to 82%) in arm B and EFS being 64% (95% CI, 56% to 73%) in arm A and 55% (95% CI, 46% to 64%) in arm B. Conclusion: IFO added to MTX, CDP, and ADM from the preoperative phase does not improve the good responder rate and increases hematologic toxicity. IFO should only be considered in patients who have a poor histologic response to MTX, CDP, and ADM. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Pistorio A.,Istituto Giannina Gaslini | Oliveira S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Zulian F.,Clinica Pediatrica I | Cuttica R.,Hospital General de Ninos Pedro de Elizalde | And 31 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Summary Background Most data for treatment of dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis are from anecdotal, non-randomised case series. We aimed to compare, in a randomised trial, the efficacy and safety of prednisone alone with that of prednisone plus either methotrexate or ciclosporin in children with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis. Methods We did a randomised trial at 54 centres in 22 countries. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or younger with new-onset juvenile dermatomyositis who had received no previous treatment and did not have cutaneous or gastrointestinal ulceration. We randomly allocated 139 patients via a computer-based system to prednisone alone or in combination with either ciclosporin or methotrexate. We did not mask patients or investigators to treatment assignments. Our primary outcomes were the proportion of patients achieving a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 level of improvement (20% improvement in three of six core set variables at 6 months), time to clinical remission, and time to treatment failure. We compared the three treatment groups with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Friedman's test, and we analysed survival with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Analysis was by intention to treat. Here, we present results after at least 2 years of treatment (induction and maintenance phases). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00323960. Findings Between May 31, 2006, and Nov 12, 2010, 47 patients were randomly assigned prednisone alone, 46 were allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 46 were randomised prednisone plus methotrexate. Median duration of follow-up was 35·5 months. At month 6, 24 (51%) of 47 patients assigned prednisone, 32 (70%) of 46 allocated prednisone plus ciclosporin, and 33 (72%) of 46 administered prednisone plus methotrexate achieved a juvenile dermatomyositis PRINTO 20 improvement (p=0·0228). Median time to clinical remission was 41·9 months in patients assigned prednisone plus methotrexate but was not observable in the other two treatment groups (2·45 fold [95% CI 1·2-5·0] increase with prednisone plus methotrexate; p=0·012). Median time to treatment failure was 16·7 months in patients allocated prednisone, 53·3 months in those assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin, but was not observable in patients randomised to prednisone plus methotrexate (1·95 fold [95% CI 1·20-3·15] increase with prednisone; p=0·009). Median time to prednisone discontinuation was 35·8 months with prednisone alone compared with 29·4-29·7 months in the combination groups (p=0·002). A significantly greater proportion of patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin had adverse events, affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissues, gastrointestinal system, and general disorders. Infections and infestations were significantly increased in patients assigned prednisone plus ciclosporin and prednisone plus methotrexate. No patients died during the study. Interpretation Combined treatment with prednisone and either ciclosporin or methotrexate was more effective than prednisone alone. The safety profile and steroid-sparing effect favoured the combination of prednisone plus methotrexate. Funding Italian Agency of Drug Evaluation, Istituto Giannina Gaslini (Genoa, Italy), Myositis Association (USA). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Consolaro A.,Pediatria II | Ruperto N.,Pediatria II | Bracciolini G.,Pediatria II | Frisina A.,Pediatria II | And 12 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Objective To determine cutoff values for defining the state of high disease activity (HDA) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS). Methods For the selection of cutoff values, data from a clinical database including 609 patients were used. Optimal cutoff values were determined against external criteria by calculating the 25th and 10th centile of cumulative score distribution and through receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. External criteria were based on the therapeutic decision made by the attending doctor. Cross-validation was performed using five patient samples that included 1421 patients. Results The optimal cutoff values were those obtained through the 90% fixed sensitivity method. The selected JADAS cutoff values were the following: 4.2 and 8.5 for JADAS27 in oligoarthritis and polyarthritis, respectively; 4.2 and 10.5 for both JADAS10 and JADAS71 in oligoarthritis and polyarthritis, respectively. In crossvalidation analyses, the cutoff values showed strong ability to discriminate between different levels of American College of Rheumatology paediatric response in two clinical trials and could predict worse functional and radiographic outcome. Conclusions Cutoff values for classifying HDA in JIA using the JADAS were developed. In cross-validation analyses, they proved to have good construct and discriminant validity and ability to predict disease outcome. Source

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