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David S.,University of Palermo | Bucchieri F.,University of Palermo | Corrao S.,University of Palermo | Czarnecka A.M.,Military Institute of Medicine | And 14 more authors.
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2013

There is growing evidence that molecular chaperones/heat shock proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, known as chaperonopathies. A better molecular understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms is essential for addressing new strategies in diagnostics, therapeutics and clinical management of chaperonopathies, including those in which Hsp10 is involved. This chaperonin has been studied for a long time as a member of the mitochondrial protein-folding machine. However, although in normal cells Hsp10 is mainly localized in the mitochondrial matrix, it has also been found during and after stress in other subcellular compartments, such as cytosol, vesicles and secretory granules, alone or in combination with other proteins. In these extramitochondrial locales, Hsp10 plays an active role in cell signalling. For example, cancer cells often show altered levels of Hsp10, compared to normal cells. Hsp10 may also be found in the extracellular space and in the bloodstream, with a possible immunomodulatory activity. This minireview focuses on some studies to date on the involvement of Hsp10 in human disease pathogenesis. Source

Marino Gammazza A.,University of Palermo | Bucchieri F.,University of Palermo | Grimaldi L.M.E.,Fondazione Istituto San Raffaele G. Giglio | Benigno A.,University of Palermo | And 5 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is ubiquitous and highly conserved being present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, including pathogens. This chaperonin, although typically a mitochondrial protein, can also be found in other intracellular sites, extracellularly, and in circulation. Thus, it can signal the immune system and participate in the development of inflammation and immune reactions. Both phenomena can be elicited by human and foreign Hsp60 (e.g., bacterial GroEL), when released into the blood by infectious agents. Consequently, all these Hsp60 proteins become part of a complex autoimmune response characterized by multiple cross reactions because of their structural similarities. In this study, we demonstrate that Hsp60 proteins from humans and two common pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, share various sequence segments of potentially highly immunogenic epitopes with acetylcholine receptor α1 subunit (AChRα1). The structural data indicate that AChRα1 antibodies, implicated in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, could very well be elicited and/or maintained by self- and/or bacterial Hsp60. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Rizzo M.,University of Palermo | Cappello F.,University of Palermo | Marfil R.,University of Palermo | Marfil R.,University of Granada | And 11 more authors.
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2012

Identification of predictors of cardiovascular risk can help in the prevention of pathologic episodes and the management of patients at all stages of illness. Here, we investigated the relationships between serum levels of Hsp60 and dyslipidemia in patients with periodontitis by performing a cross-sectional study of 22 patients with mild periodontitis without any prior treatment for it (i.e., drug naïve) and 22 healthy controls, matched for age and body mass index (BMI). All subjects were evaluated for periodontal status, gingival inflammation, and oral hygiene. Levels of circulating Hsp60, C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma lipids were measured, and small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were indirectly assessed by determining the triglycerides/high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol ratio. We also assessed by immunohistochemistry Hsp60 levels in oral mucosa of patients and controls. No difference was found in CRP levels or plasma lipids between the two groups, but subjects with periodontitis showed, in comparison to controls, higher levels of small, dense LDL (p=0.0355) and circulating Hsp60 concentrations (p<0.0001). However, levels of mucosal Hsp60 did not change significantly between groups. Correlation analysis revealed that circulating Hsp60 inversely correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r0-0.589, p00.0039), and positively with triglycerides (r0+0.877, p<0.0001), and small, dense LDL (r0+0.925, p<0.0001). Serum Hsp60 significantly correlated with the degree of periodontal disease (r0+0.403, p00.0434). In brief, untreated patients with mild periodontitis had increased small, dense LDL and serum Hsp60 concentrations, in comparison to age- and BMI-matched controls and both parameters showed a strong positive correlation. Our data indicate that atherogenic dyslipidemia and elevated circulating Hsp60 tend to be linked and associated to periodontal pathology. Thus, the road is open to investigate the potential value of elevated levels of circulating Hsp60 as predictor of risk for cardiovascular disease when associated to dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. © 2011 Cell Stress Society International. Source

Campanella C.,University of Palermo | Bucchieri F.,University of Palermo | Merendino A.M.,University of Palermo | Fucarino A.,University of Palermo | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: In a previous work we showed for the first time that human tumor cells secrete Hsp60 via exosomes, which are considered immunologically active microvesicles involved in tumor progression. This finding raised questions concerning the route followed by Hsp60 to reach the exosomes, its location in them, and whether Hsp60 can be secreted also via other mechanisms, e.g., by the Golgi. We addressed these issues in the work presented here. Principal Findings: We found that Hsp60 localizes in the tumor cell plasma membrane, is associated with lipid rafts, and ends up in the exosomal membrane. We also found evidence that Hsp60 localizes in the Golgi apparatus and its secretion is prevented by an inhibitor of this organelle. Conclusions/Significance: We propose a multistage process for the translocation of Hsp60 from the inside to the outside of the cell that includes a combination of protein traffic pathways and, ultimately, presence of the chaperonin in the circulating blood. The new information presented should help in designing future strategies for research and for developing diagnostic-monitoring means useful in clinical oncology. © 2012 Campanella et al. Source

Novo G.,University of Palermo | Cappello F.,University of Palermo | Rizzo M.,University of Palermo | Fazio G.,University of Palermo | And 12 more authors.
Translational Research | Year: 2011

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are produced in response to various stressors, including ischemia-reperfusion, and they can exit cells and reach the blood. In this pilot study, we determined serum levels of Hsp60 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also named Hsp32) in subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to assess their clinical significance and potential prognostic value. We also performed a bioinformatics analysis of the 2 molecules in search of structural clues on the mechanism of their release from cells. We studied 40 patients consecutively admitted for AMI (male:female patient ratio = 20:20, mean age: 64 ± 13 years) and 40 matched controls. A blood sample was drawn for biochemical analyses within 24 h of symptoms onset, and Hsp60 and HO-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All patients were followed up for 6 months to register adverse post-AMI cardiovascular events. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that elevated Hsp60 (P = 0.0361), creatine phosphokinase-muscle brain (CK-MB) (P = 0.0446), and troponin (P = 0.0490) were predictive of post-AMI adverse events. In contrast, increased HO-1 showed a significant association with less severity of coronary artery diseases (P = 0.0223). These findings suggest that Hsp60 and HO-1 play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of AMI and subsequent AMI-related pathology. The possibility that these proteins differ in their roles and mechanisms of action in AMI and post-AMI pathology was supported also by the bioinformatics estimates of probability of their localization in various subcellular compartments. The results clear the way for subsequent investigation on the pathogenetic role and clinical significance of Hsp60 and HO-1 in AMI. © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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