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Borbone E.,Istituto di Endocrinologia Ed Oncologia Sperimentale | Borbone E.,Naples Oncogenomic Center | Berlingieri M.T.,Istituto di Endocrinologia Ed Oncologia Sperimentale | De Bellis F.,The Second University of Naples | And 7 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2010

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is considered one of the most aggressive malignancies, having a poor prognosis and being refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Alteration in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been reported in cancer, thus encouraging the development of HDAC inhibitors, whose antitumor action has been shown in both solid and hematological malignancies. However, the molecular basis for their tumor selectivity is unknown. To find an innovative therapy for the treatment of ATCs, we studied the effects of deacetylase inhibitors on thyroid tumorigenesis models. We show that HDACs 1 and 2 are overexpressed in ATCs compared with normal cells or benign tumors and that HDAC inhibitors induce apoptosis selectively in the fully transformed thyroid cells. Our results indicate that these phenomena are mediated by a novel action of HDAC inhibitors that reduces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand protein degradation by affecting the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Indeed, the combined treatment with HDAC and proteasome inhibitors results in synergistic apoptosis. These results strongly encourage the preclinical application of the combination deacetylase-proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of ATC. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Staibano S.,University of Naples Federico II | Ilardi G.,University of Naples Federico II | Leone V.,Istituto di Endocrinologia Ed Oncologia Sperimentale | Luise C.,Istituto di Endocrinologia Ed Oncologia Sperimentale | And 11 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: DNA damage response has been clearly described as an anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis. Moreover, interestingly, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have been reported to lack the DNA Damage Response (DDR) pathway activation. CCDC6 is a pro-apoptotic phosphoprotein substrate of the kinase ataxia telangectasia mutated (ATM) able to sustain DNA damage checkpoint in response to genotoxic stress and is commonly rearranged in malignancies upon fusion with different partners. In our study we sought to determine whether CCDC6 could have a role in the patho-genesis of testicular germ cell tumors. Methods: To achieve this aim, analysis for CCDC6 expression has been evaluated on serial sections of the mouse testis by immunohistochemistry and on separate populations of murine testicular cells by western blot. Next, the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species has been investigated in GC1 cells, derived from immortalized type B murine germ cells, following CCDC6 silencing. Finally, the CCDC6 expression in normal human testicular cells, in Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia Unclassified (IGCNU), in a large series of male germ cell tumours and in the unique human seminoma TCam2 cell line has been evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western Blot analyses. Results: The analysis of the CCDC6 expression revealed its presence in Sertoli cells and in spermatogonial cells. CCDC6 loss was the most consistent feature among the primary tumours and TCam2 cells. Interestingly, following treatment with low doses of H2O2, the silencing of CCDC6 in GC1 cells caused a decrease in the oxidized form of cytochrome c and low detection of Bad, PARP-1 and Caspase 3 proteins. Moreover, in the silenced cells, upon oxidative damage, the cell viability was protected, the γH2AX activation was impaired and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) release was decreased. Conclusions: Therefore, our results suggest that the loss of CCDC6 could aid the spermatogonial cells to be part of a pro-survival pathway that helps to evade the toxic effects of endogenous oxidants and contributes to testicular neoplastic growth. © 2013 Staibano et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Crescenzi E.,Istituto di Endocrinologia Ed Oncologia Sperimentale | Pacifico F.,Istituto di Endocrinologia Ed Oncologia Sperimentale | Lavorgna A.,University of Naples Federico II | De Palma R.,The Second University of Naples | And 4 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2011

Induction of a senescent phenotype in tumor cells has been linked to anticancer immune response, however, the molecular mechanisms mediating these phenomenon have not yet been determined. In this study, we present evidence that induction of premature senescence in human cancer cell lines induces Fas expression, and loss of resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis. Triggering of Fas by using the agonistic antibody CH11 or the recombinant ligand APO010, activates an apoptotic pathway responsible for cell death. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the senescent cells, particularly TNF-α and IFN-γ, mediates Fas upregulation. Indeed, treatment of proliferating cancer cell lines with TNF-α and IFN-γ, upregulates Fas expression, while blocking TNF-α and IFN-γ by using neutralizing antibodies, decreases Fas expression in senescent cells. We also demonstrate that NF-B has a central role in controlling the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) by the premature senescent cells, and that TNF-α and IFN-γ, transcriptionally controlled by NF-B, are the main mediators of Fas upregulation. Our data suggest the existence of an NF-B-dependent autocrine loop, mediated by TNF-α and IFN-γ, responsible for expression of Fas on the surface of senescent cells, and for their killing. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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