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Milan, Italy

The Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica , or INAF for short, is the most important Italian institution conducting scientific research in astronomy and astrophysics. Researches performed by the scientific staff of the Institute go from the study of the planets and minor bodies of the solar system up to researches of cosmological interest . Wikipedia.


Caraveo P.A.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Isolated neutron stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. In the 1970s, only two sources had been identified, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space in both the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star (NS) magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. We are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known gamma-ray-emitting NSs. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011, and we are now over 150. The gamma-ray-emitting NS population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting NSs. Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting NSs, long-term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decades-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. Source


Peron R.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We deal here with the combination of satellites' orbital residuals time series used to estimate relativistic effects and at the same time to overcome some systematics. In a recent paper by Lorenzo Iorio, it is argued about a significant contribution to the error budget of Lense-Thirring effect measurement performed by combining LAGEOS and LAGEOS II data, considering as well as a possible future measurement using also LARES data. We show here, by a proper interpretation of the combination formulas, that this contribution is indeed negligible. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-1-2014 | Award Amount: 11.14M | Year: 2015

The INDIGO-DataCloud project (INDIGO for short) aims at developing a data/computing platform targeted at scientific communities, deployable on multiple hardware, and provisioned over hybrid (private or public) e-infrastructures. This platform will be built by leading European developers, resource providers, e-infrastructures and scientific communities in order to ensure its successful exploitation and sustainability. All members of the consortium share the common interest in developing advanced middleware to sustain the deployment of service models and user tools to tackle the challenges of the Big Data era. INDIGO will exploit the formidable know-how that was built in Europe along the past ten years of collaborations on scientific computing based on different consolidated and emerging paradigms (HPC, Grid and Cloud). Regarding Cloud computing, both the public and private sectors are already offering IaaS-type Cloud resources. However, numerous areas are of interest to scientific communities where Cloud computing uptake is currently lacking, especially at the PaaS and SaaS levels. The project therefore aims at developing tools and platforms based on open source solutions addressing scientific challenges in the Cloud computing, storage and network areas. INDIGO will allow application development and execution on Cloud and Grid based infrastructures, as well as on HPC clusters. The project will extend existing PaaS solutions, allowing public and private e-infrastructures, including those provided by EGI, EUDAT, PRACE and HelixNebula, to integrate their existing services, make them available through GEANT-compliant federated and distributed AA policies, guaranteeing transparency and trust in the provisioning of such services. INDIGO will also address the development of a flexible and modular presentation layer connected to the expanded PaaS and SaaS frameworks developed by the project and allowing innovative user experiences, also from mobile appliances.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-STG | Phase: ERC-StG-2015 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2016

The Universe around us is populated with galaxies, each containing from millions to tens of billions of individual stars. Far from being immutable, galaxies undergo profound changes as they age. Their evolution depends on their position in the cosmic web, a network of sheets and filaments of matter that stretches across the entire Universe. The goal of FORNAX is to study the evolution of galaxies in the densest regions of the cosmic web, galaxy clusters. In these regions, a number of physical processes are thought to make galaxies lose their cold gas the material from which new stars are born and change their appearance dramatically. I will study these processes in action by observing the flow of cold gas in and out of galaxies living inside an important, nearby cluster of galaxies: Fornax. I will observe Fornax for 2,450 hours with MeerKAT, a new, state-of-the-art radio telescope precursor of the Square Kilometre Array. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of sensitivity, resolution and sky-coverage of my survey, I will reveal the most subtle signs of the removal of gas from galaxies, I will detect the smallest gas-bearing galaxies in the cluster, and I will hunt the elusive cold gas which, according to cosmological theories, floats in the space between galaxies along the filaments of the cosmic web.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.23M | Year: 2015

The Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will address key scientific and technological challenges facing modern planetary science by providing open access to state-of-the-art research data, models and facilities across the European Research Area. Its Transnational Access activities will provide access to world-leading laboratory facilities that simulate conditions found on planetary bodies as well as specific analogue field sites for Mars, Europa and Titan. Its Virtual Access activities will make available the diverse datasets and visualisation tools needed for comparing and understanding planetary environments in the Solar System and beyond. By providing the underpinning facilities that European planetary scientists need to conduct their research, EPN2020-RI will create cooperation and effective synergies between its different components: space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory and field experiments, numerical modelling, and technology. EPN2020-RI builds on the foundations of successful FP6 and FP7 Europlanet programmes that established the Europlanet brand and built structures that will be used in the Networking Activities of EPN2020-RI to coordinate the European planetary science communitys research. It will disseminate its results to a wide range of stakeholders including industry, policy makers and, crucially, both the wider public and the next generation of researchers and opinion formers, now in education. As an Advanced Infrastructure we place particular emphasis on widening the participation of previously under-represented research communities and stakeholders. We will include new countries and Inclusiveness Member States, via workshops, team meetings, and personnel exchanges, to broaden/widen/expand and improve the scientific and innovation impact of the infrastructure. EPN2020-RI will therefore build a truly pan-European community that shares common goals, facilities, personnel, data and IP across national boundaries

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