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Tondello A.,University of Padua | Villani M.,University of Padua | Alessandrini A.,Istituto Beni Culturali della Regione Emilia Romagna | Baldan B.,University of Padua | Squartini A.,University of Padua
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2011

Hedysarum confertum Desf. (Fabaceae) represents a particular rarity in the Italian flora, signalled as late as in 1931 and nowadays still occurring only in few isolated stations in the central Apennine mountains. Within a framework of loss prevention of relevant botanical resources and landscape protection, we aimed at investigating possible factors limiting the distribution of this taxon and its potential to colonize suitable habitats. For these reasons we verified the existence of symbiotic relationships between H. confertum and soil bacteria assessing their identity and physiology. The plant was found to form histologically complete root nodules which are regularly invaded by bacteria. However, bacterial isolation in pure culture and cultivation ex planta appears prevented by a state of non-culturability. To assess the taxonomical position of nodule occupants the problem was circumvented by direct PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA gene and nucleotide sequencing which revealed that H. confertum hosts bacteria of the genus Mesorhizobium, and that their ribosomal sequence has undergone a higher-than-average degree of divergence from the mesorhizobia nodulating other legumes in different countries. These differences suggest a possible link between the non-culturability of the symbiont and the isolated relictual status of its host plant. © 2011 Società Botanica Italiana.

D'Amico C.,University of Bologna | Nenzioni G.,Museo della Preistoria Luigi Donini San Lazzaro di Savena | Ronchi S.,Museo della Preistoria Luigi Donini San Lazzaro di Savena | Lenzi F.,Istituto Beni Culturali della Regione Emilia Romagna
Rendiconti Lincei | Year: 2013

Seventy-three Neolithic polished stone artefacts of the S. Lazzaro di Savena collection, of which about half petrographically studied, show both Early and Middle Neolithic Age. Sixty-five artefacts (89 %) are manufactured with HP-metaophiolites ("greenstone"): Alpine Eclogites (71 %), Na-pyroxenitic Jades (11 %), Omphacite schists (3 %) and Glaucophanic schists (4 %), similar to all Neolithic collections from Northern Italy. Some petrographic peculiarities suggest a provenance from the Rivanazzano or nearby sources in the NW-Apennines. Of eight other finds (11 %), four adzes and one fragmented arm ring are manufactured with basaltic lithologies derived from the Apennine ophiolites cropping out in the S. Lazzaro area. They demonstrate local sources and ability of manufacturing in loco. A few analogous Early Neolithic implements near the Po River and west of Bologna reveal a so far unknown circulation of these lithologies. One chisel made in sandstone comes from a nearby source. Two limestone arm ring fragments probably derive from SE, i.e. from the Ripoli Culture. © 2012 Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.

D'Amico C.,University of Bologna | Nenzioni G.,Museo della Preistoria Luigi Donini | Lenzi F.,Istituto Beni Culturali della Regione Emilia Romagna
Rendiconti Lincei | Year: 2015

During this study, about two hundred stone tools from the Bologna territory—particularly from the S. Lazzaro di Savena area—were studied. They comprise perforated axe-hammers, axes/adzes and other variously polished complete or fragmentary tools of Copper Age typology, mostly coming from surface survey. They are mostly manufactured from basic magmatic rocks (in order of abundance: diabases, dolerites, gabbros, basalts and basic porphyrites) typical of the Apennine ophiolites outcropping upstream to the local mountains/hills, as well as in several areas of the Northern Apennines. Other lithologies, such as ophiolitic ultramafics (serpentinites, steatite and one Ca-pyroxenite) and non-ophiolitic lithologies, are poorly represented. The petrographic features of the studied artefacts are compatible with those of the ophiolitic rocks outcropping in the nearby Apennines and include varying degrees of low-grade, both of continental (various green and bright amphiboles, chlorite, saussurrite etc.) and oceanic metamorphism (typically brown hornblende and rare mylonitic textures). Some basic porphyrites with large phenocrysts, uncommon in the Apennine ophiolites, are also present. The few non-ophiolitic lithologies (siliciclastic arenites, calcarenites, limestones and siliceous stones) were probably supplied from the nearby Apennine, with the exception of a spotted slate of unknown origin. Based on their morphotypological features, some ophiolitic and not-ophiolitic artefacts may suggest some exchange and importation from—or simply some prehistoric cultural links with—Tuscany, Marche and occasionally Southern Italy and South Tyrol/Alto Adige. © 2015, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.

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