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Shahmirzaie M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rakhshandehroo F.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Zamanizadeh H.R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Elbeaino T.,Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2012

During 2009-2010, a survey was conducted in gardens and commercial fig orchards throughout Iran to determine the prevalence of Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2), Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV), Fig latent virus 1 (FLV-1) and Fig mosaic virus (FMV). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) were conducted on 104 fig samples collected from seven provinces. FLV-1, FLMaV-1 and FMV were found in 14.5, 11.5 and 8.6% of the samples, respectively, but FLMaV-2 and FMMaV were absent. The overall average of infection reached 18.3%, with a peak of 42.9% in Semnan Province, followed by Golestan (40%), Tehran (32.3%), Lorestan (28.6%) and Mazandaran (25%) provinces. No infection was found in Fars and Gilan provinces. Fig samples from Varamin and Khorramabad districts showed high levels of mixed infections, 35.7 and 28.6%, respectively. The presence of FMV and FLV-1 in the sap of symptomatic fig leaves was also ascertained by DIBA. Sequence analysis of amplified DNA from the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of two FMV isolates from Iran showed a low level of nucleotide variability (5%). The Iranian isolates shared a common phylogeny with other Mediterranean FMV isolates and in particular with those originating from Turkey already reported in GenBank. This is the first report on the presence of FLMaV-1 and FLV-1 in Iran and offers a preliminary insight into the unsatisfactory health status of fig in this country. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Caglar B.K.,Cukurova University | Fidan H.,Plant Protection Research Institute | Elbeaino T.,Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Using double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) was detected in 27 pepper (Capsicum spp.) plants of 3000 tested and found to be present in Adana, Antalya, Kahramanmaraş, Mersin and Şanli{dotless}urfa, all provinces devoted to pepper production in southern Turkey. Results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers specific to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid protein (CP) genes confirmed those of ELISA by amplifying all PMMoV-infected plants. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR assays using sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker primers showed that PMMoV from Turkey overcomes L3-gene-mediated resistance, so pepper plantations are susceptible to PMMoV infection. Sequences of CPs showed high amino acid identities (92-99%) with their homologues in the database and, furthermore, to share a distinguished molecular print found common uniquely in pathotypes P1,2,3. The phylogenetic tree allocated the Turkish isolates in one cluster together with PMMoV pathotypes P1,2,3 of the Italian, Spanish and Israeli isolates, all reported to overcome the L3-resistance-breaking gene in pepper. This is the first molecular information on PMMoV isolates present in Turkey, for which this information could have guiding significance in future pepper resistance breeding in the country. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Elbeshehy E.K.F.,Suez Canal University | Elbeaino T.,Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2011

Fig production in Egypt is in continuous decline because many diseases, particularly those caused by viruses, are compromising this crop. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 60 fig samples collected from three Egyptian fig-growing provinces (Ismailia, Qena and North Sinai), from the three main fig varieties (cvs. Sultany, Abode and El-Adasy), to investigate the presence of Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2), Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV) and Fig mosaic virus (FMV). The overall average incidence of infection reached 90%, with a peak of 95% in Ismailia province. All four viruses were detected in tested samples, with infection rates of 68.3% for FLMaV-1, 35% for FLMaV-2, 28.3% for FMMaV and 46.7% for FMV. This is the first report of the presence of these viruses in Egypt and offers a preliminary insight on the unsatisfactory sanitary status of fig in this country. Source

Caglar B.K.,Cukurova University | Elbeaino T.,Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

California privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.) plants exhibiting leaf yellowing, witches' broom, dieback and decline symptoms were observed for two years (2010-2011) in three gardens at Adana region (Turkey). DNA isolated from symptomatic and healthy plants was used to amplify 16S rDNA fragments by direct and nested-PCR. Phytoplasmas were detected in 21 symptomatic plants, out of 30 samples collected, whilst no PCR amplifications were obtained from asymptomatic plants. BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA showed that the phytoplasma found in L. ovalifolium from Turkey, denoted as Turkish Ligustrum witches' broom phytoplasma (TuLiWB), most closely resembled members of group 16SrII (peanut witches' broom group) and shared up to 92 % sequence identity. Based on in silico 16S rDNA RFLP analysis and automated calculation of the pattern similarity coefficient, TuLiWB showed molecular characteristics different from all previously described phytoplasma species to represent a new taxon. Similar indication also emerged from the phylogenetic tree which allocated it in a novel discrete subclade within the phytoplasma clade. This is the first report on the presence of a phytoplasma affecting L. ovalifolium and whether this novel phytoplasma is the same agent reported as a mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) and associated with witches' broom disease of Ligustrum in Korea (1989) is yet to be determined. © 2013 KNPV. Source

Elbeaino T.,Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari | Digiaro M.,Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari | Martelli G.P.,CNR Institute of Plant virology
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Two novel RNA molecules, denoted RNA-5 and RNA-6, found in Fig mosaic virus-infected plants in addition to the previously identified four RNA segments were completely sequenced. Each segment consisted of a single open reading frame (ORF). In particular, RNA-5 is 1,752 nucleotides in size and expresses a polypeptide of 502 amino acids (ca. 59 kDa), whereas RNA-6 comprises 1,212 nucleotides and codes for a polypeptide of 188 amino acids (21.5 kDa). Both RNA segments possess, at their 5'/3' termini, stretches of conserved nucleotides that are common to the other previously identified FMV RNA segments. The proteins encoded by RNA-5- and RNA-6 did not reveal any potential function nor similarities with any known viral protein or conserved motif in database, including those of related Emaravirus-like viruses. The presence of two novel RNA segments in the genome of FMV is in accordance with findings reporting more than four RNA molecules in some of the viruses that, like FMV, have enveloped particles originally denoted "double-membraned bodies". Source

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