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Sgaramella V.,Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2013

Both theory and experimentation suggest that during development, the DNA of multicellular organisms, recognized as graced with a lifelong intrinsic stability, is instead target of several modifications (point mutations, larger structural variations, epigenetic marks) and partner of complex interactions with non-DNA moieties (RNAs and proteins). Some of these modifications probably affect a fraction of the genome larger than standard point mutations and are more likely to respond to environmental cues. Thus, the traditional concepts of gene and genome need revision: the structure serving as depository of the overall bioinformation of the cell is more dynamic and less homogeneous than allowed for by the Central Dogma, since in addition to DNA, it includes also RNA and proteins. Each of the individual contributors as well as their stoichiometry undergo modifications. Compared to the traditional unidimensional and static genome, the resulting dynamic aggregate could be more competent to cope with different regulatory requirements: its structural variations may respond to unscheduled macro- and microenvironmental stresses as well as to scheduled genetic programs. A detailed assessment of these variations in time and space should provide a basis for a deeper comprehension of the phenotypic changes punctuating the organism's physio-pathological development, aging and transgenerational transmission. The variations of such information storage-delivery system may interest also the germ cells: the inheritance of parental traits and hence their evolutionary transmission would be affected. For the structure featuring all these properties, we propose the term 'hypergenome' to underscore the dynamic composition of a complex nucleoprotein responsive to both unpredictable environmental stimuli and internal built-in programs. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Evans K.M.,East Malling Research | Patocchi A.,ETH Zurich | Patocchi A.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station | Rezzonico F.,ETH Zurich | And 14 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Apple cultivars and breeding lines that represent much of the diversity currently present in major European breeding programmes and are genetically related by their pedigree were examined for the trueness of their identity and parentage by consistency in marker scores using a genome-covering set of 80 microsatellite (SSR) markers and an 'identity-by-descent' approach. One hundred and twenty-five individuals were validated for the trueness-to-type of both their parents and 49 were validated for one of their parents, their second being unknown (23 individuals) or not available in this study (26 individuals). In addition, 15 individuals for which we lacked one of or both the direct parents were validated by consistency with tested parents of earlier generations. Furthermore, the identity of 28 founder cultivars was validated, their marker scores being consistent with descending cultivars and breeding lines. Four of the eight triploids identified were clearly shown to have arisen from unreduced egg cells. The assumed pedigree of 15 further individuals was found to be incorrect; fully consistent pedigrees were suggested for three of the cultivars. The pedigrees of a further eight individuals were confirmed through inference from the molecular data. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Schuck M.R.,Federal University of Parana | Moreira F.M.,Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Voltolini J.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guerra M.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2010

'Goethe' grape is a symbol of the viticulture of Urussanga region, south of the state of Santa Catarina, which is currently claiming the geographical indication of the grape and wine Goethe. Microsatellite markers are the biotechnological tool most used for molecular identification of grapevine varieties worldwide. These markers have the potential of generate unique DNA profiles for all the diverse grape genotypes. The aim of this work was to characterize two selections of the grapevine 'Goethe' from Urussanga, using microsatellite markers. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves and branches of nine accessions of each selection "Goethe Clássica and 'Goethe Primo' maintained at one public and eight private collections of Urussanga. Ten microsatellite loci VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD27, VrZAG62, VrZAG79, VVMD25, VVMD28, VVMD31 and VVMD32 were genotyped by capillary electrophoresis. Results showed that the two variants of 'Goethe' have an identical molecular profile which doesn't match any other DNA profile of grapevines previously described in literature or available in databases. The phenotypic differences observed are probably due to somatic mutations in functional regions of the genome, a phenomenon which leads to the creation of clones in grape. Source

Maul E.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Sudharma K.N.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Kecke S.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Ifv | Marx G.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Ifv | And 44 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2012

The objective of the European Vitis Database is to safeguard and enhance germplasm by monitoring its preservation. Two issues are strongly related to that purpose: (1) participation of collections covering almost all grape biodiversity and (2) assessment of accessions trueness to type. In the scope of the European project GrapeGen06 efforts have been made towards both objectives. The 35 participating grape germplasm repositories are found between the Iberian Peninsula and Transcaucasia, thus covering a broad range of grape diversity. Altogether they maintain 32,410 accessions. However with respect to biodiversity, gaps are still evident and further collections need to be included and trueness to type assessment absolutely needs to be pursued to organize duplication of endangered genotypes. Within the GrapeGen06 project focus was laid on the establishment of a database conferring the collection holders a high degree of responsibility and independence. Hence for the first time in a European Central Crop Database an on-line uploading application and an interactive modification system for data administration was implemented. These innovations disburden the database manager and offer the curators of collections more flexibility. Prerequisites for data import, descriptors applied, access levels, database contents, uploading, export and search functions are described. Source

Brighenti A.F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | da Silva A.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Brighenti E.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecua ria e Extensa&tild;o Rural de Santa Catarina | Porro D.,Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Stefanini M.,Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to evaluate the viticultural performance of 12 native Italian varieties, cultivated at 1,400 m of altitude in Sa&tild;o Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The following varieties were evaluated during three cycles: Prosecco, Verdicchio, and Vermentino (white); and Aglianico, Aleatico, Ancellotta, Lambrusco Grasparossa, Montepulciano, Negroamaro, Rebo, Sagrantino, and Sangiovese (red). A completely randomized design was used, with five replicates of eight plants for each variety. The phenological stages evaluated were: budbreak, full bloom, veraison, and maturity. At harvest, the following were evaluated: yield and productivity per plant, total soluble solids (°Brix), titratable total acidity (meq L-1), pH, and contents of anthocyanin and total polyphenol. Thermal amplitude around 10°C during maturation positively influenced grape quality. The white varieties better adapted to the conditions of Sa&tild;o Joaquim were Vermentino and Verdicchio, with yields above 3.9 Mg ha-1, soluble solids above 18°Brix, and total polyphenol contents above 500 mg L-1. The red varieties better adapted were Sangiovese, Sagrantino, and Montepulciano, with yields around 6 Mg ha-1, soluble solids between 19 and 21.5°Brix, and total polyphenol contents above 780 mg L-1. Low temperatures during budbreak and the volume of rainfall are the most limiting climatic aspects for cultivating the evaluated varieties in Sa&tild;o Joaquim. Source

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