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Buti S.,Istituti Ospitalieri di Cremona | Rovere R.K.,Hospital Santo Antonio Blumenau
Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Renal cell cancer is fastly growing in incidence worldwide. No adjuvant therapy has been unarguably proven feasible so far, although an autologous vaccine has achieved a significant benefit. An effective agent in adjuvant therapy against renal cell cancer must achieve several goals. It should be relatively non toxic, have estabilished efficacy in the metastatic setting, and have demonstrated efficacy against the standard of care in randomized phase III trials. The development of adjuvant therapy requires the properly identification of patients at highest risk of relapse, as potential benefactors of adjuvant therapy development. Our ability to predict when and where patients will recur has much room for improvement. Therefore several models and nomograms including the most important prognostic and predictive factors have been developed. Nevertheless, during the past few years, major advances have been made concerning the metastatic setting of the disease with the arrival of new drug classes such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, strongly improving overall and progression free survivals, renewing hopes on activity regarding the adjuvant therapy. Several trials are today in progress to evaluate the effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents in this area. An overall review of the completed and upcoming trials and patents shall be discussed here. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Kalinka-Warzocha E.,University of Lodz | Plazas J.G.,Hospital General Universitario Of Elche | Mineur L.,Sainte Catherine Institute | Salek T.,Narodny Onkologicky Ustav | And 4 more authors.
Gastric Cancer

Background: Potentially myelosuppressive doublet and triplet chemotherapy combination regimens are considered the most active treatments in gastric cancer. This multicenter prospective observational study was designed to gain insight into the chemotherapy regimens being used in Europe and to evaluate neutropenia management in patients identified as at high risk for febrile neutropenia (FN).Methods: Eligible patients had gastric cancer, were scheduled for ≥ 3 cycles of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and had an investigator-assessed overall FN risk ≥ 20 %. Data were collected for up to ten cycles. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who received granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) primary prophylaxis (defined as G-CSF initiated on days 1–7 of cycle 1). Secondary endpoints included FN incidence, chemotherapy administration, and G-CSF use.Results: Of 199 patients who met the eligibility criteria and started at least one cycle of chemotherapy, mean age was 63 years, 76 % were men, 83 % had an ECOG score of 0 or 1, 54 % had metastatic disease, and 24 % had received prior chemotherapy. A total of 27 different backbone regimens were given; the most common regimen was modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF). Despite all patients having been identified as having a ≥ 20 % FN risk, only 70 (35 %) received G-CSF primary prophylaxis. FN occurred in 14 patients overall (7 %). Most FN events occurred in patients who received DCF/modified DCF (9/14 events, 64 %).Conclusions: The results of this study reveal a high use of myelotoxic treatment regimens in gastric cancer in Europe and low adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the use of primary and secondary G-CSF prophylaxis for FN. © 2014, The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Source

Malberti F.,Istituti Ospitalieri di Cremona

Hyperphosphataemia can be induced by three main conditions: a massive acute phosphate load, a primary increase in renal phosphate reabsorption, and an impaired renal phosphate excretion due to acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Renal excretion is so efficient in normal subjects that balance can be maintained with only a minimal rise in serum phosphorus concentration even for a large phosphorus load. Therefore, acute hyperphosphataemia usually resolves within few hours if renal function is intact. The most frequent cause of chronic hyperphosphataemia is chronic renal failure. Hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lowering the phosphate load and maintaining serum phosphorus levels within the normal range are considered important therapeutic goals to improve clinical outcomes in CKD patients. Treatment consists of diminishing intestinal phosphate absorption by a low phosphate diet and phosphate binders. In CKD patients on dialysis an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate should be ensured. Dietary restriction of phosphorus while maintaining adequate protein intake is not sufficient to control serum phosphate levels in most CKD patients; therefore, the prescription of a phosphate binder is required. Aluminium-containing agents are efficient but no longer widely used because of their toxicity. Calcium-based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used, but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and vascular and extraosseous calcification. The average daily dose of calcium acetate or carbonate prescribed in the randomised controlled trials to control hyperphosphataemia in dialysis patients ranges between 1.2 and 2.3 g of elemental calcium. Such doses are greater than the recommended dietary calcium intake and can lead to a positive calcium balance. Although large amounts of calcium salts should probably be avoided, modest doses (<1 g of elemental calcium) may represent a reasonable initial approach to reduced serum phosphorus levels. A non-calcium-based binder can then be added when large doses of binder are required. At present, there are three types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders available: sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate and magnesium salts. Each of these compounds is as effective as calcium salts in lowering serum phosphorus levels depending on an adequate prescribed dose and adherence of the patient to treatment. Sevelamer is the only non-calcium-containing phosphate binder that does not have potential for systemic accumulation and presents pleiotropic effects that may impact on cardiovascular disease. In contrast, lanthanum carbonate and magnesium salts are absorbed in the gut and their route of excretion is biliary for lanthanum and urinary for magnesium. There are insufficient data to establish the comparative superiority of non-calcium binding agents over calcium salts for such important patient-level outcomes as all-cause mortality and cardiovascular end points. Moreover, full adoption of sevelamer and lanthanum by government drug reimbursement agencies in place of calcium salts would lead to a large increase in health-care expenditure. Therefore, the choice of phosphate binder should be individualised, considering the clinical context, the costs, and the individual tolerability the concomitant effects on other parameters of mineral metabolism, such as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone, besides those on serum phosphorus. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Radaelli F.,Valduce Hospital | Paggi S.,Valduce Hospital | Hassan C.,Endoscopy Unit | Senore C.,Centro Of Prevenzione Oncologica Cpo Piemonte | And 7 more authors.

Objective Although a split regimen of bowel preparation has been associated with higher levels of bowel cleansing, it is still uncertain whether it has a favourable effect on the adenoma detection rate (ADR). The present study was aimed at evaluating whether a split regimen was superior to the traditional 'full-dose, day-before' regimen in terms of ADR. Design In a multicentre, randomised, endoscopistblinded study, 50-69-year-old subjects undergoing first colonoscopy after positive-faecal immunochemical test within an organised colorectal cancer organised screening programmes were 1:1 randomised to receive low-volume 2-L polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ascorbate solution in a 'split-dose' (Split-Dose Group, SDG) or 'day-before' regimen (Day-Before Group, DBG). The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with at least one adenoma. Secondary endpoints were the detection rates of advanced adenomas and serrated lesions at per-patient analysis and the total number of lesions. Results 690 subjects were included in the study. At per-patient analysis, the proportion of subjects with at least one adenoma was significantly higher in the SDG than in the DBG (183/345, 53.0% vs 141/345, 40.9%, relative risk (RR) 1.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.46); corresponding figures for advanced adenomas were 26.4% (91/345) versus 20.0% (69/345, RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.73). At per-polyp analysis, the total numbers of both adenomas and advanced adenomas per subject were significantly higher in the SDG (1.15 vs 0.8, p <0.001; 0.36 vs 0.22, p<0.001). Conclusions In an organised screening setting, the adoption of a split regimen resulted into a higher detection rate of clinically relevant neoplastic lesions, thus improving the effectiveness of colonoscopy. Based on such evidence, the adoption of a split regimen for colonoscopy should be strongly recommended. Clinical trial registration number NCT02178033. © 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Society of Gastroenterology. Source

Ratti M.,Istituti Ospitalieri di Cremona | Tomasello G.,Istituti Ospitalieri di Cremona
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

Chemotherapy is frequently associated with hematologic toxicity. Neutropenia with or without fever is a relevant cause of morbidity, mortality and costs, compromising treatment administration and clinical outcomes. The development of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors has had a positive impact on the clinician's approach to neutropenia. Such agents, currently used for primary and secondary prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN), are effective in limiting hematologic toxicities and consequently allow the administration of intensive dose-dense regimens. Several biosimilar products of filgrastim have been developed over the years, showing effects similar to the originator drug. Until now, pegfilgrastim has been the only available long-acting factor, requiring just a single administration per chemotherapy cycle. The recent approval of the novel granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, lipegfilgrastim, offers interesting therapeutic alternatives. In fact, similar to pegfilgrastim, it has been demonstrated to reduce the duration of neutropenia and the occurrence of FN during chemotherapy safely. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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