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Gor A.P.,Otorhinolaryngology Clinic | Alkan Z.,Otorhinolaryngology Clinic | Yigit O.,Otorhinolaryngology Clinic | Dursun N.,Istanbul Research and Educational Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate histochemical markers of apoptosis in the cricopharyngeus muscle, which is the gatekeeper of the pharyngoesophageal region during the swallowing process; to investigate the effects of primary aging on this muscle; and to determine whether a relationship exists with gastroesophageal reflux disease.Results: The mean age was 41.5 (14-74) years, and the study included 18 male and 9 female cadavers. Three of them were excluded because of fixation artifacts. The mean Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase scores showed no statistically significant relationship with age (P = 0.94). The right and left sides of the muscle were investigated separately, and the Bax scores of the right side of the cricopharyngeus muscle showed a statistically significant decrease with age (P = 0.026), whereas the Bax and Bcl-2 scores were increased with age (P = 0.035 and 0.049, respectively) on the left side. Evaluation of the 23 esophagus specimens revealed 10 cases of esophagitis. No relationship was found between the mean of each apoptotic marker and esophagitis.Conclusions: It is histopathologically not possible to demonstrate muscle death due to either primary aging or reflux. This might be attributable to the defensive capability of this unique muscle to maintain the feeding process.Materials and Methods: The study included 30 fresh cadavers with a time of death of 12 hours or less obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Justice Forensic Medicine Unit. All cadavers were dissected with routine postmortem skin incisions to extract specimens from the cricopharyngeus muscle and the esophagocardiac junction mucosa. Muscle degeneration and primary aging were demonstrated by immunodetection of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 proteins as markers of the apoptosis. Esophageal specimens were examined for the presence of reflux esophagitis. Copyright © 2014 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

Guldiken Y.,Istanbul University | Orhan K.S.,Istanbul University | Yigit O.,Istanbul Research and Educational Hospital | Basaran B.,Istanbul University | And 4 more authors.
Otology and Neurotology | Year: 2011

Objective: In the standard technique of cochlear implantation, the internal receiver-stimulator (IRS) is fixed into a socket drilled on the calvarial bone. In the subperiosteal technique, the IRS is fixed under the subperiosteal plane, and drilling is not necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the subperiosteal and the standard techniques. Study Design: Retrospective clinical study. Setting: Tertiary referral center; cochlear implant program. Patients: One hundred forty-eight patients who underwent cochlear implantation. Intervention: The researcher who evaluated the patients was not informed which of the 2 techniques was used on the patients and administered a visual analog scale (VAS) analysis. The duration of the operation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and migration of the IRS were assessed. Main Outcome Measures: A VAS survey was administered to the patients or to their parents to evaluate the practicability of the implant. Results: The duration of the operation was 73.4 ± 17.8 minutes in the subperiosteal group and 105.5 ± 17.8 minutes in the standard technique group. The difference was statistically significant. Intracranial complications or migration of the IRS was also not observed in any patient. The VAS score was 4.2 ± 2.1 in the standard group and 4.3 ± 1.9 in the subperiosteal group. The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The subperiosteal technique can be safely and effectively used in cochlear implantation. Not only are there no intracranial complications and no migration of IRS was observed but also the mean operation time is reduced up to 30% and none of the patients have reported difficulty with fixing of the external device. © 2011, Otology & Neurotology, Inc.

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