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Piratvisuth T.,Prince of Songkla University | Marcellin P.,University Paris - Sud | Popescu M.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Kapprell H.-P.,Abbott Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Hepatology International | Year: 2013

Purpose: Patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B, who achieve HBeAg seroconversion 6 months after completing 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa-2a therapy, have an increased chance of clearing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during long-term treatment-free follow-up. This analysis aimed to determine whether HBsAg quantification during treatment could be used to identify posttreatment response. Methods: Patients (n = 399) treated with peginterferon alfa-2a (180 μg/week) alone or in combination with lamivudine (100 mg/day) for 48 weeks during a large, randomized study were included in this retrospective analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were used to identify baseline and on-treatment HBsAg levels associated with response (HBeAg seroconversion 6 months posttreatment). Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were lower in patients achieving posttreatment response than in nonresponders (3.97 and 4.21 IU/mL, respectively, p = 0.039). Two baseline HBsAg cutoff levels (5,000 and 50,000 IU/mL) provided a positive predictive value of 42% and a negative predictive value of 77%. HBsAg decline was significantly greater during and posttreatment in responders than in nonresponders (p < 0.0001). HBeAg seroconversion rates 6 months posttreatment were significantly higher in patients with HBsAg < 1,500 IU/mL at weeks 12 and 24 (56.7 and 54.4%, respectively) versus patients with HBsAg 1,500-20,000 IU/mL (32.3 and 26.1%, respectively) or HBsAg < 20,000 IU/mL (16.3 and 15.4%, respectively) (all p < 0.0001 and <0.0001). Conclusions: HBsAg levels at baseline strongly associated with posttreatment response were not identified. Low HBsAg levels during peginterferon alfa-2a therapy were associated with high rates of posttreatment response. On-treatment HBsAg quantification may, therefore, help guide patient management in the future. © 2011 Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver. Source

Marcellin P.,University Paris - Sud | Reau N.,University of Chicago | Ferenci P.,University of Vienna | Hadziyannis S.,Henry Dunant Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: It is unclear whether the magnitude of reduction in hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA between baseline and week 4 of treatment influences the probability of achieving a sustained virological response (SVR) in patients without a week 4 rapid virological response (RVR). Methods: Data were retrospectively analyzed from two studies in which treatment-naive patients received peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) 180 μg/week plus ribavirin 1000/1200 mg/day for 48 weeks. Five hundred and fifty-eight genotype 1 patients with evaluable HCV RNA at baseline and week 4 were grouped according to RVR status: RVR (HCV RNA <50 IU/ml) or no RVR. Non-RVR patients were subdivided into discrete mutually exclusive categories according to week 4 HCV RNA; the proportion of patients with undetectable HCV RNA at week 12 was calculated per each category, and among them, the proportion with an SVR. Results: Overall, 88% of RVR patients and 43% of non-RVR patients achieved an SVR (p <0.0001). Among non-RVR patients, SVR rates were 77%, 61%, 43%, 27% and 13%, respectively (trend test p <0.0001) in those with unquantifiable HCV RNA or ≥3 log 10, ≥2 log 10, ≥1 log 10, or <1 log 10 drop to week 4. In patients HCV RNA positive at week 4, SVR rates were 67% for those negative at week 12 vs. 17% (HCV RNA positive patients or who had missing values at week 12 [p <0.0001]). Conclusions: The probability of achieving SVR is graded in relation to the magnitude of reduction in HCV RNA at week 4 and 12. Patients with a ≥3 log 10 drop in HCV RNA at week 4 have a high probability of achieving an SVR. © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Zappa D.,CNR Institute of Acoustics and Sensors Orso Mario Corbino | Briand D.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Comini E.,IST GmbH | Courbat J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 2 more authors.
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

Zinc oxides (ZnO) nanowires were successfully deposited on plastic low-power micro-hotplates using the thermal oxidation technique. Metallic zinc layer was deposited on the sensing transducer by RF magnetron sputtering and then oxidized in a controlled atmosphere in order to obtain ZnO nanostructures. Morphological investigations confirmed the nanometric dimensions of the fabricated nanostructures. The n-type behavior of the nanostructured material was evaluated towards different chemical species to highlight the electrical properties of the materials. Calibration curves for the detection of several chemical species were defined. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lang I.,National Institute of Oncology | Brodowicz T.,Medical University of Vienna | Ryvo L.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | Kahan Z.,University of Szeged | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Randomised phase 3 trials in metastatic breast cancer have shown that combining bevacizumab with either paclitaxel or capecitabine significantly improves progression-free survival and response rate compared with chemotherapy alone but the relative efficacy of bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus capecitabine has not been investigated. We compared the efficacy of the two regimens. Methods: In this open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial, patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer who had received no chemotherapy for advanced disease were randomised (by computer-generated sequence; 1:1 ratio; block size six; stratified by hormone receptor status, country, and menopausal status) to receive either intravenous bevacizumab (10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15) plus intravenous paclitaxel (90 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15) repeated every 4 weeks (paclitaxel group) or intravenous bevacizumab (15 mg/kg on day 1) plus oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-14) repeated every 3 weeks (capecitabine group) until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. Treatment allocation was not masked because of the differences in routes of administration and cycle lengths. The primary objective was to show non-inferior overall survival with bevacizumab plus capecitabine versus bevacizumab plus paclitaxel. We report results of an interim overall survival analysis, which was planned for after 175 deaths in the per-protocol population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00600340. Findings: Between Sept 10, 2008, and Aug 30, 2010, we randomised 564 patients (paclitaxel group n=285; capecitabine group n=279) from 51 centres in 12 countries. The per-protocol population consisted of 533 patients (paclitaxel group n=268; capecitabine group n=265). After median follow-up of 18·6 months (IQR 14·9-24·7), 181 patients in the per-protocol population had died (89 [33%] in the paclitaxel group; 92 [35%] in the capecitabine group). The hazard ratio [HR] for overall survival was 1·04 (97·5% repeated CI -∞ to 1·69; p=0·059); the non-inferiority criterion of the interim analysis (interim α=0·00105) was not met. More patients who received bevacizumab plus paclitaxel had an objective response than did those who received bevacizumab plus capecitabine (125 [44%] of 285 patients vs 76 [27%] of 279; p<0·0001). Similarly, progression-free survival was significantly longer in the paclitaxel group than in the capecitabine group (median progression-free survival 11·0 months [95% CI 10·4-12·9] vs 8·1 months [7·1-9·2]; HR 1·36 [95% CI 1·09-1·68], p=0·0052). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (51 [18%]), peripheral neuropathy (39 [14%]), and leucopenia (20 [7%]) in the paclitaxel group and hand-foot syndrome (44 [16%]), hypertension (16 [6%]), and diarrhoea (15 [5%]) in the capecitabine group. One treatment-related death occurred in the paclitaxel group; no deaths in the capecitabine group were deemed to be treatment-related. Interpretation: In this planned interim analysis, the non-inferiority criterion was not met and overall survival results are inconclusive. Final results are expected in 2014. Progression-free survival was better, and more patients achieved an objective response, with bevacizumab plus paclitaxel than with bevacizumab plus capecitabine. Efficacy results in both groups were consistent with previous reports. Funding: Central European Cooperative Oncology Group; Roche. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Marcellin P.,University Paris Diderot | Cheinquer H.,Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre | Curescu M.,Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara | Dusheiko G.M.,University College London | And 11 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2012

The ability to predict which patients are most likely to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR) with peginterferon/ribavirin would be useful in optimizing treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). The objective of this large international noninterventional cohort study was to investigate the predictive value (PV) of a virologic response (VR) by weeks 2, 4, and 12 of treatment on SVR. Treatment-naive HCV monoinfected patients (N = 7,163) age ≥18 years were prescribed peginterferon/ribavirin at the discretion of the treating physician according to country-specific requirements in accordance with the local label. The main outcome measure was the PV of a VR (HCV RNA <50 IU/mL) by weeks 2, 4, and 12 of treatment for SVR24 (HCV RNA <50 IU/mL after 24 weeks of untreated follow-up) by HCV genotype. The overall SVR24 rate was 49.4% (3,541/7,163; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 48.3-50.6%). SVR24 rates in patients with an HCV RNA titer <50 IU/mL by weeks 2, 4, and 12, respectively, were 66.2% (95% CI: 60.4-71.7%), 68.4% (95% CI: 65.7-71.0%), and 60.3% (95% CI: 58.5-62.1%) among genotype 1 patients; 82.0% (95% CI: 76.8-86.5%), 76.3% (95% CI: 73.3-79.1%), and 74.2% (95% CI: 71.3-76.9%) among genotype 2 patients; 67.3% (95% CI: 61.1-73.1%), 67.3% (95% CI: 64.2-70.3%), and 63.8% (95% CI: 61.0-66.6%) among genotype 3 patients; and 59.4% (95% CI: 40.6-76.3%), 63.3% (95% CI: 54.3-71.6%), and 54.3% (95% CI: 47.5-60.9%) among genotype 4 patients. The absence of a VR by week 12 had the highest negative PV across all genotypes. Conclusion: A VR by week 2 or 4 had the highest positive PV for SVR24 and differed according to HCV genotype. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

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