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Amorim F.,IST Energy | Amorim F.,University of Lisbon | Vasconcelos J.,IST Energy | Abreu I.C.,APREN | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Although the Portuguese electricity market was fully liberalized in 2006 and Iberian Electricity Market operators were set up some years ago, almost all electricity generated in Portugal benefits from a State guaranteed price, independent of market behavior. This applies not only to producers using renewable energy sources and cogeneration under feed-in tariffs, but also to all conventional power plants that undersigned a Power Purchase Agreement in the 1990s. This paper assesses current and future amounts of electricity traded without State guaranteed price and identifies the main challenges facing the transition towards a competitive Portuguese electricity generation market in the next two decades. The electricity market of the future, freed from the present legacy generation contracts, will have to promote economic efficiency within a complex multi-variable climate/energy policy framework. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ioakimidis C.S.,University of Lisbon | Ioakimidis C.S.,IST Energy | Oliveira L.J.,IST Energy | Genikomsakis K.N.,University of Deusto
Energy | Year: 2014

This paper presents the EB (energy box) concept in the context of the V2G (vehicle-to-grid) technology to address the energy management needs of a modern residence, considering that the available infrastructure includes micro-renewable energy sources in the form of solar and wind power, the electricity loads consist of "smart" and conventional household appliances, while the battery of an EV (electric vehicle) plays the role of local storage. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective DSP (dynamic stochastic programming) model in order to maximize comfort and lifestyle preferences and minimize cost. Combining the DSP model that controls the EB operation with a neural network based approach for simulating the thermal model of a building, a set of scenarios are examined to exemplify the applicability of the proposed energy management tool. The EB is capable of working under real-time tariff and placing bids in electricity markets both as a stand-alone option and integrated in a SmartGrid paradigm, where a number of EBs are managed by an aggregator. The results obtained for the Portuguese tertiary electricity market indicate that this approach has the potential to compete as an ancillary service and sustain business with benefits for both the microgrid and residence occupants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Andriambololona R.,Madagascar Institute des science et Techniques Nucleaires | Rakotonirina C.,IST Energy
Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2011

The Dirac-Sidharth equation has been constructed from the Sidharth Hamiltonian by quantification of the energy and momentum in Pauli algebra. We have solved this equation by using tensor product of matrices. © Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics.


Ioakimidis C.S.,IST Energy | Ioakimidis C.S.,University of Deusto
2011 8th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 11 | Year: 2011

The ancillary services are a group of power markets with the objective to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply and power deliver. The identification of the ancillary services depends on the grid itself and the regulation of the energy market. The possibility of the use of an Energy Box (EB) to work as an ancillary service to place bids on the Portuguese tertiary market is suggested in this work. In Portugal, among other ancillary services, it is chosen to analyze the possibility of the EB to supply power to the tertiary reserve (reserva terciaria). This reserve is used to replace the secondary reserve allowing it to maintain the level established by the system. It is important to notice that the secondary reserve is negotiated in the previous day according to forecasts of the demand and the probability of generators failure. The tertiary reserve is negotiated posterior so it has a higher cost and requires a fast response time, characteristics that can be matched by the EB. In our paradigm the grid operator would negotiate directly with the aggregator (similar to what happens nowadays with the regular market agents), which would have centralized the biding of all the EB's inside the microgrid and compute the aggregator's bid. © 2011 IEEE.


Gem

Trademark
MSW Power Corporation and IST Energy | Date: 2012-05-18

On-site waste to energy gasification systems comprised of a gasifier, shredder, pellitizer, and dryer, all sold as a unit.


News Article | January 22, 2010
Site: news.cnet.com

When a school or office building thinks about distributed energy, it usually means solar panels propped up on a roof. A small company called IST Energy has another vision: it's developed a shipping container-size contraption that turns your building's trash into electricity and heat. The company is expected to unveil the unit, called the Green Energy Machine (GEM), on Monday. The idea behind the GEM is to offset a building's energy use while dramatically cutting trash disposal fees. The cost of trash removal can vary greatly, but a university or office park with a number of buildings could pay about $200,000 a year, according to IST Energy executives. The company says the GEM is clean technology because it doesn't burn the trash. Instead, the machine uses gasification, a process that overall pollutes less than combustion. A number of clean-tech companies are trying to combine gasification with renewable sources of fuel, namely municipal solid waste or biomass. The GEM unit is designed to take up as much space as three parking spaces, making it suitable for office buildings, hospitals, and the like. Metal and glass have no energy content, so they should be recycled. But everything else--food, cardboard, plastics, agricultural wastes--can go in. "Normally, when we tell people what we're doing, they say, 'You can do that? I had no idea that was possible," said Stu Haber, president and chief executive of IST, which is based in Waltham, Mass. The company, which was spun out of a research and development firm, says it can convert 95 percent of the waste--up to three tons of trash a day--into usable energy. The remaining 5 percent is ash. With three tons of trash a day, a unit can provide enough electricity and heat for a 200,000 square-foot building holding about 500 people, it says. So far, a handful of universities, a municipality, and a real-estate developer have come by its Waltham, Mass. offices for demonstrations. Got a big trash bill? Haber said the unit pays for itself relatively quickly but realizes that the novelty of the GEM could make it a tough sell. He hopes to sell between 5 and 10 units this year. "The first GEM will be the hardest one to sell," he said. Noise from the machine could also be a barrier. Corporate purchases of solar panels have been growing rapidly, depending on a state's incentives. Haber argued that many companies invest in solar energy to reduce their carbon footprint in a visible way, but a purchase of a GEM can be driven entirely by money, he argued. Feeding the maximum of three tons of trash will yield about 120 kilowatts of electricity and about double that in heat, which will fulfill about 15 percent of a building's energy needs, IST Energy figures. The bigger financial benefit is in cutting disposal fees, Haber said. With an up-front cost of $850,000, a GEM unit will have a payback in three to four years, the company calculates. More likely, those interested will go with a leasing option that would eliminate the hefty up-front investment. "Everybody loves the fact that they're helping the environment, but because we're talking to businesspeople, I have to assume that they're interested because of the very quick payback," he said. There's also a 10 percent federal tax credit available for this sort of renewable energy, Haber said. Squeezing more value from refuse From the end user's point of view, the GEM is designed to be simple. Through a loader, trash goes into the machine, which shreds the garbage. Then the machine removes moisture and creates pellets--shaped just like the sawdust pellets used in pellet stoves. Then the pellets are put into an air-fed gasifier designed by the company, which generates what is called a synthetic gas, or producer gas, which typically contains mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. That gas is the fuel for making electricity or heat. IST Energy recommends that the best energy source would be a natural-gas microturbine, which would need to have its setting adjusted, or a generator. It takes about two hours before the GEM runs from its own energy output, so the main carbon emissions come from burning the synthetic gas. Garbage is already used as fuel source in a number of places. Some landfill operators capture methane from degrading trash to make electricity. Trash incinerators, too, can create some usable energy, but they are considered inefficient and polluting. Looking to reduce shipments of diesel fuel, the U.S. Army last year tested portable trash-powered generators in Iraq, but the project is said to have not met all its goals. For energy technology firms looking for a cheap source of fuel, trash appears to be attracting more interest. Another Boston-area company called Ze-Gen is pursuing the same general idea as IST Energy. Last week, it raised a Series B round of $20 million to build a facility to take construction debris and make electricity at a central location using a gasification process. Another firm, InEnTech in Oregon, is pursuing a different technology process to get the most energy out of household garbage. Many of these firms have yet to test their products at commercial scale. But at a time when people are seeking clean and renewable-energy sources, waste may come full circle and become a valuable commodity again.


News Article | February 9, 2011
Site: news.cnet.com

WALTHAM, Mass.--In the quest for renewable sources of energy, the military is giving garbage a go. The Edwards Air Force base in Southern California will test out a shipping container-sized trash-to-energy unit from IST Energy. The Air Force will be the first customer for IST Energy's Green Energy Machine (GEM), which is designed to convert waste into electricity and heat, according to the company. Two years ago, IST Energy showed off the prototype of the GEM and earlier this month began showing the unit to potential customers. About 20 companies, which either have a sustainability initiative or pay a lot for waste disposal, have come to check out the unit here so far. IST Energy is one of a number of companies seeking to draw usable energy from everyday garbage with a less damaging environmental impact than incinerators. The company projects a 5- to 10-year payback on the $1.1 million GEM, depending on its waste and energy costs. Instead of burning waste, the GEM uses a gasifier, where dried and pelletized waste is heated to above 600 degrees Celsius in a vessel with limited oxygen. The heat causes the material to break down into what is called a synthetic gas, or syngas, made mostly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane in IST Energy's gasifier, explained Matt Young, the engineering group leader for waste-to-energy systems at IST Energy. The syngas is the fuel for either a natural gas engine or boiler after some modifications. Or the gas can be mixed with diesel fuel to run a generator. Three tons of waste a day is enough to power a 100-kilowatt generator, but the net output is 72 kilowatts because of the power needed to operate the machine. Heat can be fed into a building's heating system as well. The companies that have come to see the GEM are seeking to lower the amount of trash they need to remove and to generate energy on site, Young said. "It's really changing the way they look at waste. They see it as a resource rather than a burden," he said. The military in particular is keen to reduce its waste and carry less diesel fuel in the field, which is a security liability. In 2008, the Army tested a portable waste-to-energy unit, called Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER), in Iraq. The Army says it's still interested in the technology but the TGER has not yet been deployed elsewhere. Edwards Air Force base will receive its GEM in April, where data will be collected for a report to the Department of Defense. Green cred? Gasification is a technology that's seeing a resurgence of interest from energy entrepreneurs in part because it produces a fuel--syngas--which can be used to make electricity or heat. Ze-Gen, for example, has built a larger waste-to-energy system designed to convert construction and demolition waste into electricity. The GEM is optimized for certain types of waste, such as food waste and packaging, which an office building would typically generate. It is not designed to work with construction debris or biohazard waste. Using an EPA model, IST Energy calculates that the greenhouse gas emissions are lower from the GEM than hauling garbage to a landfill. If a facility were to use three tons of trash in the GEM each day rather than sending it to the landfill, it would reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 540 tons for that year, said Young. In terms of other air pollutants, IST Energy expects to meet air quality standards for the diesel generators or natural gas engines that the syngas would be used in, he added. The roots of the machine's development go back to the Department of Defense, which funded two projects that led to the creation of IST Energy. One was to improve on a mobile gasifier and the other was around creating pellets from a stream of waste. Over the past two years, IST Energy has worked on improving the reliability and efficiency of those components. Inside the GEM is a whirl of machinery and ducts crawling in different directions. Apart from the gasifier and pelletizer, much of the equipment is off-the-shelf. For example, gases from the unit are "scrubbed" to remove particulate matter, and ferrous metals are removed with a magnetic belt. Ninety-five percent of waste put in is converted to energy, leaving an ash that's approved for landfills, Young said. It's also heavily instrumented with sensors and an Internet connection so IST Energy and customers can monitor the output and spot maintenance issues. A waste-to-energy system is not the first thing organizations will think of to showcase corporate sustainability efforts and lower their environmental footprint. But now waste is part of the distributed energy picture.


News Article | January 21, 2009
Site: gigaom.com

Burning garbage is so yesterday — now you can gasify it. And Waltham, Mass.-based IST Energy wants to bring the waste-to-energy technology to the masses. The business masses, that is. The Green Energy Machine, or GEM, which IST is launching today, is about the size of a large garbage dumpster — and apparently very noisy. Designed to be parked at the back of an office building, mall or college campus, a GEM can turn up to three tons of trash per day, including paper, wood, plastic, food and agricultural waste, into 120 kilowatts of electricity, as well as the equivalent of 240 kW of heat. While there could be a significant reduction in emissions related to the transport and landfilling of all that garbage, as well as savings on garbage collection costs, it’s not an emission-free system. The garbage is broken down with downdraft gasification, which uses high heat to decompose the trash in a controlled process that produces no emissions, according to the company. Small fuel pellets are then created from the decomposed trash, with gasification used again to convert the pellets into syngas. The syngas is then used in a traditional generator, and that generator, like most generators, produces emissions when the syngas is burned, although the company claims those emissions are offset by the other, emission-reducing parts of the system. IST, part of research, development and engineering company Infoscitex, isn’t the only company working on a small scale waste-to-energy system. The U.S. Army is testing out a similar size unit that was developed by McLean, Va.-based defense contractor Defense Life Sciences, Purdue University and the Army’s Edgewood Chemical Biological Center in Maryland. But the TGER, or Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery, has to tackle a bit more than just garbage. It also has to stand up to the extremely hot and sandy conditions in Iraq. But unlike countries like Iraq, in the U.S., IST’s system will have to go up against an already available recycling and composting infrastructure in many states. And composting doesn’t make any noise at all. IST, which has received funding through the federal government’s Small Business Innovation Research program and an angel investor, said the GEM system is currently being demonstrated at its headquarters. It’s scheduling customer demonstrations of the technology and expects deliveries to start this summer.


News Article | January 28, 2011
Site: www.cnet.com

WALTHAM, Mass.--In the quest for renewable sources of energy, the military is giving garbage a go. The Edwards Air Force base in Southern California will test out a shipping container-sized trash-to-energy unit from IST Energy. The Air Force will be the first customer for IST Energy's Green Energy Machine (GEM), which is designed to convert waste into electricity and heat, according to the company. Two years ago, IST Energy showed off the prototype of the GEM and earlier this month began showing the unit to potential customers. About 20 companies, which either have a sustainability initiative or pay a lot for waste disposal, have come to check out the unit here so far. IST Energy is one of a number of companies seeking to draw usable energy from everyday garbage with a less damaging environmental impact than incinerators. The company projects a 5- to 10-year payback on the $1.1 million GEM, depending on its waste and energy costs. Instead of burning waste, the GEM uses a gasifier, where dried and pelletized waste is heated to above 600 degrees Celsius in a vessel with limited oxygen. The heat causes the material to break down into what is called a synthetic gas, or syngas, made mostly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane in IST Energy's gasifier, explained Matt Young, the engineering group leader for waste-to-energy systems at IST Energy. The syngas is the fuel for either a natural gas engine or boiler after some modifications. Or the gas can be mixed with diesel fuel to run a generator. Three tons of waste a day is enough to power a 100-kilowatt generator, but the net output is 72 kilowatts because of the power needed to operate the machine. Heat can be fed into a building's heating system as well. The companies that have come to see the GEM are seeking to lower the amount of trash they need to remove and to generate energy on site, Young said. "It's really changing the way they look at waste. They see it as a resource rather than a burden," he said. The military in particular is keen to reduce its waste and carry less diesel fuel in the field, which is a security liability. In 2008, the Army tested a portable waste-to-energy unit, called Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER), in Iraq. The Army says it's still interested in the technology but the TGER has not yet been deployed elsewhere. Edwards Air Force base will receive its GEM in April, where data will be collected for a report to the Department of Defense. Green cred? Gasification is a technology that's seeing a resurgence of interest from energy entrepreneurs in part because it produces a fuel--syngas--which can be used to make electricity or heat. Ze-Gen, for example, has built a larger waste-to-energy system designed to convert construction and demolition waste into electricity. The GEM is optimized for certain types of waste, such as food waste and packaging, which an office building would typically generate. It is not designed to work with construction debris or biohazard waste. Using an EPA model, IST Energy calculates that the greenhouse gas emissions are lower from the GEM than hauling garbage to a landfill. If a facility were to use three tons of trash in the GEM each day rather than sending it to the landfill, it would reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 540 tons for that year, said Young. In terms of other air pollutants, IST Energy expects to meet air quality standards for the diesel generators or natural gas engines that the syngas would be used in, he added. The roots of the machine's development go back to the Department of Defense, which funded two projects that led to the creation of IST Energy. One was to improve on a mobile gasifier and the other was around creating pellets from a stream of waste. Over the past two years, IST Energy has worked on improving the reliability and efficiency of those components. Inside the GEM is a whirl of machinery and ducts crawling in different directions. Apart from the gasifier and pelletizer, much of the equipment is off-the-shelf. For example, gases from the unit are "scrubbed" to remove particulate matter, and ferrous metals are removed with a magnetic belt. Ninety-five percent of waste put in is converted to energy, leaving an ash that's approved for landfills, Young said. It's also heavily instrumented with sensors and an Internet connection so IST Energy and customers can monitor the output and spot maintenance issues. A waste-to-energy system is not the first thing organizations will think of to showcase corporate sustainability efforts and lower their environmental footprint. But now waste is part of the distributed energy picture.

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