Lemoisson F.,Issyk-Kul State University |
Fadden S.Mc.,UCD |
Rebow M.,UCD |
Browne D.J.,UCD |
And 11 more authors.
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2010
The authors are members of the integrated project Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification (IMPRESS), funded within the European Framework (FP6). One of the aims of IMPRESS is to develop new alloys and processes for the casting of TiAl-based turbine blades for the next generation of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. Within IMPRESS, two related issues have been identified during the primary solidification stage, namely, segregation and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The authors have set out to isolate the effects of thermo-solutal convection, by designing a microgravity experiment to be performed on a European Space Agency platform. This experiment will investigate the CET formation during solidification. It is planned to use a sounding rocket providing a microgravity time of approximately twelve minutes. The results of this microgravity solidification experiment will be used as unique benchmark data for development and validation of new computational models of TiAl solidification. This in turn will produce accurate models and ultimately new robust industrial processes by project partners in the aerospace industry. The evolution of the design of the microgravity experiment is discussed and the results of preliminary ground reference experiments are presented. Future plans and objectives for the project are also highlighted. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.
Sarieva G.E.,Issyk-Kul State University |
Kenzhebaeva S.S.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University |
Lichtenthaler H.K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2010
For the first time, the adaptive role of the rolling leaf trait for tolerance of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) to the main factor of drought, high temperature, was demonstrated. Cv. Otan with high degree of this trait expression was more tolerant to temperature stress (40°C, 4 h during 2 days (2h/day)). Changes in parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm and RFd690, suggest that cv. Otan was tolerant to inhibition of photochemical activities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). Furthermore, high temperature had no effect on the rate of net photosynthesis (PN) in cv. Otan, although it decreased this parameter in the other wheat cultivars. The main factors, which provid for this tolerance, were adaptation of the photosynthetic pigment system by active accumulation of carotenoids, more stable structural organization of PSII and PSI, and their high photosynthetic activities, as well as efficient stomatal regulation of transpiration and supplying of mesophyll cells with CO2. It is hypothesized that the physiological role of the rolling leaf trait is the maintenance of adaptation potential by increasing the efficiency of water metabolism in the flag leaves of wheat under high temperature. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
VAN DER WOLF J.,IITA |
JASSOGNE L.,IITA |
GRAM G.,IITA |
GRAM G.,Issyk-Kul State University |
VAAST P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2016
This paper presents the main features of a unique decision-support tool developed for selecting tree species in coffee and cocoa agroforestry systems. This tool aims at assisting in the selection of appropriate shade trees taking into account local conditions as well as needs and preferences of smallholder farmers while maximizing ecosystem services from plot to landscape level. This user-friendly and practical tool provides site-specific recommendations on tree species selection via simple graphical displays and is targeted towards extension services and stakeholders directly involved in sustainable agroforestry and adaptation to climate change. The tool is based on a simple protocol to collect local agroforestry knowledge through farmers’ interviews and rankings of tree species with respect to locally perceived key ecosystem services. The data collected are first analysed using the BradleyTerry2 package in R, yielding the ranking scores that are used in the decision-support tool. Originally developed for coffee and cocoa systems of Uganda and Ghana, this tool can be extended to other producing regions of the world as well as to other cropping systems. The tool will be tested to see if repeated assessments show consistent ranking scores, and to see if the use of the tool by extension workers improves their shade tree advice to local farmers. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ElSayed A.I.,Zagazig University |
ElSayed A.I.,University of Bayreuth |
Weig A.R.,University of Bayreuth |
Sariyeva G.,University of Bayreuth |
And 7 more authors.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2013
Sink leaves, source leaves and internodes of four Hawaiian sugarcane cultivars were tested, whether the inhibition of SCYLV-caused assimilate export was due to lower sucrose synthesis activity, less sucrose transporter content or block of solute flow by callose deposition. The transcript levels of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSII) and sucrose transporter ShSUT4 were constant throughout sugarcane tissues, whereas the sucrose transporter ShSUT1A was highest in sink leaves and lowest in internodes. No differences in transcript levels were observed between the SCYLV-susceptible and -resistant cultivars and between SCYLV-infected and SCYLV-free sugarcane line.Callose deposition at the sieve plates and the pit fields between sieve tubes and companion cells, visualized by aniline blue-staining, was similar between SCYLV-infected and -free sugarcane. It is concluded that the reduction of assimilate export is neither due to lower sucrose transporter levels nor to a physical block of sieve tubes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Zajaczkowski J.,Katedra Hodowli Lasu |
Brzeziecki B.,Katedra Hodowli Lasu |
Perzanowski K.,Issyk-Kul State University |
Kozak I.,Issyk-Kul State University
Sylwan | Year: 2013
An influence of environmental changes upon forest tree species competition was studied for suggested scenario of environmental changes (3-4°C increase of monthly temperatures), 8 main tree species and 6 natural regions. For a synthetic assessment of the reaction of various species for thermal and higric parameters of the climate, the growth multipliers DDGF and SMGF were used. The main environmental factor influencing future growth of tree species in Poland will be water shortage due to increased evapotranspiration. Regional decrease of water sensitive species importance, eg. alder, spruce and birch, accompanied by country-scale expansion of highly competitive, late-successional species, eg. beech and hornbeam is expected.
PubMed | Catholic University of Leuven, Radiology, Belgian Nuclear Research Center and Issyk-Kul State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2016
The aim of this work was twofold: (1) to examine whether, with standard automatic exposure control (AEC) settings that maintain pixel values in the detector constant, lesion detectability in clinical images decreases as a function of breast thickness and (2) to verify whether a new AEC setup can increase lesion detectability at larger breast thicknesses.Screening patient images, acquired on two identical digital mammography systems, were collected over a period of 2 yr. Mammograms were acquired under standard AEC conditions (part 1) and subsequently with a new AEC setup (part 2), programmed to use the standard AEC settings for compressed breast thicknesses 49 mm, while a relative dose increase was applied above this thickness. The images were divided into four thickness groups: T1 29 mm, T2 = 30-49 mm, T3 = 50-69 mm, and T4 70 mm, with each thickness group containing 130 randomly selected craniocaudal lesion-free images. Two measures of density were obtained for every image: a BI-RADS score and a map of volumetric breast density created with a software application (VolparaDensity, Matakina, NZ). This information was used to select subsets of four images, containing one image from each thickness group, matched to a (global) BI-RADS score and containing a region with the same (local) volpara volumetric density value. One selected lesion (a microcalcification cluster or a mass) was simulated into each of the four images. This process was repeated so that, for a given thickness group, half the images contained a single lesion and half were lesion-free. The lesion templates created and inserted in groups T3 and T4 for the first part of the study were then inserted into the images of thickness groups T3 and T4 acquired with higher dose settings. Finally, all images were visualized using the ViewDEX software and scored by four radiologists performing a free search study. A statistical jackknife-alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied.For part 1, the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curves for the four readers were 0.80, 0.65, 0.55 and 0.56 in going from T1 to T4, indicating a decrease in detectability with increasing breast thickness. P-values and the 95% confidence interval showed no significant difference for the T3-T4 comparison (p = 0.78) while all the other differences were significant (p < 0.05). Separate analysis of microcalcification clusters presented the same results while for mass detection, the only significant difference came when comparing T1 to the other thickness groups. Comparing the scores of part 1 and part 2, results for the T3 group acquired with the new AEC setup and T3 group at standard AEC doses were significantly different (p = 0.0004), indicating improved detection. For this group a subanalysis for microcalcification detection gave the same results while no significant difference was found for mass detection.These data using clinical images confirm results found in simple QA tests for many mammography systems that detectability falls as breast thickness increases. Results obtained with the AEC setup for constant detectability above 49 mm showed an increase in lesion detection with compressed breast thickness, bringing detectability of lesions to the same level.
Delaere P.,Issyk-Kul State University
Bulletin et mémoires de l'Académie royale de médecine de Belgique | Year: 2011
Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects requires a vascularized allograft. We report successful tracheal allotransplantation after indirect revascularization of the graft in a heterotopic position. Immunosuppressive therapy was administered before the operation, and the allograft was wrapped in the recipient's forearm fascia. Once revascularization was achieved, the mucosal lining was replaced progressively with buccal mucosa from the recipient. At four months, the tracheal chimera was fully lined with mucosa, which consisted of respiratory epithelium from the donor and buccal mucosa from the recipient. After withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, the tracheal allograft was moved to its correct anatomical position with an intact blood supply. No treatment-limiting adverse effects occurred.
Engel'sht V.S.,Issyk-Kul State University |
Balan R.K.,Issyk-Kul State University
High Temperature | Year: 2011
A thermodynamic analysis of the vapor-oxygen gasification and combustion of graphite with a variation of the oxidizer excess α has been performed. Chemical reactions proceeding in the process of gasification and combustion, as well as components of flammable gases, which are the combustion products, have been determined. The channels of the distributing of the energy of exothermal and endothermal processes have been revealed. The energy of exothermal reactions compensates the endothermal effect of the reaction and increases the physical heat of the system. Expenditures on the endothermal reaction where flammable gases are produced are not irretrievable and transverse to the calorific power of the flammable gases. The effect of the oxidizer concentration on the adiabatic temperature at partial combustion of graphite has been analyzed. The thermal efficiency has been found as the ratio of the total thermal energy in the combustion of flammable gases and their physical heat to the spent energy, which is determined by the calorific power of graphite. The thermal efficiency is about 100%. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
PubMed | Issyk-Kul State University
Type: Lectures | Journal: Bulletin et memoires de l'Academie royale de medecine de Belgique | Year: 2012
Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects requires a vascularized allograft. We report successful tracheal allotransplantation after indirect revascularization of the graft in a heterotopic position. Immunosuppressive therapy was administered before the operation, and the allograft was wrapped in the recipients forearm fascia. Once revascularization was achieved, the mucosal lining was replaced progressively with buccal mucosa from the recipient. At four months, the tracheal chimera was fully lined with mucosa, which consisted of respiratory epithelium from the donor and buccal mucosa from the recipient. After withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, the tracheal allograft was moved to its correct anatomical position with an intact blood supply. No treatment-limiting adverse effects occurred.
PubMed | Issyk-Kul State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revue medicale de Liege | Year: 2013
Cancer during pregnancy is relatively rare, but its incidence has been increasing over recent years. A European study has been launched in 2005 by F. Amant (KUL) to register all pregnant patients with a cancer diagnosis with or without treatment during pregnancy (surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). All infants exposed to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are also followed up by pediatricians, neurologists, cardiologists and psychologists. In Belgium, French- and Dutch- language hospitals are working in close collaboration to follow these pregnant patients. The national results are summarized in this paper.