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West Jerusalem, Israel

Almog J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Espino D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Tamiri T.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Sonenfeld D.,Israel Police National Headquarters
Forensic Science International | Year: 2013

Urea nitrate (uronium nitrate, UN) is an improvised explosive that looks very much like sugar and is easily made from accessible starting materials, urea and nitric acid. During the last decade it has been frequently used by terrorists in the Israeli arena and in other countries as well. It is difficult to identify urea nitrate in post-explosion debris, since only a very small fraction survives the blast. Also, in the presence of water, it readily decomposes to its original components, urea and nitric acid, two ubiquitous substances with relatively low evidential value. By further modifying McCord's recent version of Clark's method for the detection of minute amounts of urea, we were able to identify with high degree of certainty traces of uronium ion, the main characteristic factor of urea nitrate, in post-blast residues by GC/MS. The analytical process is based on the initial formation of xanthenyl urea by the reaction of uronium cation with xanthydrol, followed by reaction with alcohol to form xanthylurethane, which is readily identified by GC/MS. The reaction mechanism was corroborated by the use of labeled 15N-urea. By applying the technique to residues collected from scenes of controlled firing experiments, 4 out of 16 samples showed the presence of uronium cation as indicated by the formation of the corresponding xanthylurethane. Potential interferences such as urea and ammonium nitrate did not respond under standard conditions. However, under strongly acidic conditions (pH<2), urea is converted into uronium ion, which is a nuisance, since it behaves as an authentic uronium cation. Such conditions, however, do not prevail at common crime scenes. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Linder N.,Rabin Medical Center | Linder N.,Tel Aviv University | Amarilla M.,Rabin Medical Center | Hernandez A.,Rabin Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Neonatal limb reduction defects may be caused by exposure to an external agent. The azole derivatives are used in the treatment of systemic and dermal mycoses. Their relative teratogenic risk is still controversial. CASES: We describe two newborns with severe limb defects who were exposed to high doses of oral (an unacceptable route) and/or intravaginal bifonazole during the entire first trimester of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Although only two cases are insufficient to establish a relationship, our data suggest that maternal intake of bifonazole in early pregnancy poses a risk of morphogenic malformations. The literature suggests several possible mechanisms. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Vinokurov A.,Israel Police National Headquarters | Zelkowicz A.,Israel Police National Headquarters | Wolf E.(U.),Israel Police National Headquarters | Zeichner A.,Nof Harim 19 B
Forensic Science International | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to assess the influence of a possible contamination of the victim's clothing by gunpowder residue on the estimation of shooting distance. The study was focused on the scenario in which the contamination might be caused by the surface on which the shot victim could fall. Contamination of two types of textile was examined after contact with two types of surfaces. One round was fired above those surfaces (the line of firing parallel to the surface) prior to the contact. It was found that few gunpowder residue particles could be transferred to the clothing. These findings should be taken into account when interpreting results for shooting distance estimation in cases when a minute quantity of gunpowder residue particles is found around the bullet entrance hole. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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