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Ness Ziona, Israel

Israel Institute for Biological Research is an Israeli government defense research institute specializing in biology, medicinal chemistry and environmental science. The institute's work is a closely guarded secret. It is suspected of also developing biological and chemical weapons and defenses against them, as well as toxins for use by Israeli intelligence in assassinations. It is located in Ness Ziona, 20 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. IIBR has approximately 350 employees, 150 of whom are scientists. Wikipedia.

Harrus S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Waner T.,Israel Institute for Biological Research
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhou M.,University of Arizona | Dagan S.,University of Arizona | Dagan S.,Israel Institute for Biological Research | Wysocki V.H.,University of Arizona
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Crash survival: Several noncovalent protein complexes were dissociated by surface collision and studied using ion mobility mass spectrometry. Most of the resulting monomer products and some undissociated precursors maintain the overall size and shape of their native fold after surface impact. This result is in contrast to the unfolding of the structures observed for the commonly used activation involving neutral gas collisions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

The prescribed drugs for treatment of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are regarded as symptomatic drugs. Effective disease modifying therapies are not yet prescribed in AD patients. Three major hallmarks of AD (e.g. cholinergic hypofunction, Aβ and tau neuropathologies) are closely linked raising the expectation that restoring the cholinergic hypofunction to normal, in particular via selective activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, may alter the onset or progression of AD dementia. This review is focused mainly on modulation of amyloid precursor processing and Aβ levels in the brain via cholinergic treatment strategies based on M1 muscarinic agonists versus other cholinergic treatments (e.g. cholinesterase inhibitors prescribed for treatment of AD, M2 antagonists and nicotinic agonists). Advantages and potential drawbacks of these treatment modalities are reviewed versus the notion that due to an elusive etiology of AD, future disease modifiers should address comprehensively most of these AD hallmarks (e.g. Aβ pathology, tau and tangle pathologies, as well as the cholinergic hypofunction and cognitive impairments). This major requirement may be fulfilled with M1-selective muscarinic agonists and less with other reviewed cholinergic treatments. © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Segall Y.,Israel Institute for Biological Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Most organophosphate (OP) pesticides require metabolic activation before attacking the target site, as opposed to chemical nerve agents, such as VX and sarin, which inhibit the enzyme directly. The majority of OP pesticides exhibit weak anticholinesterase activity in vitro compared to their In Vivo activity. Biooxidation is probably the principal route by which these pesticides are activated or detoxified. The oxidized product, usually a short-lived intermediate, may either hit the target directly or hydrolyze rapidly or, following a rearrangement reaction, convert to another species with enhanced reactivity (metaphosphate) or lose its phosphorylation or carbamoylation properties. Biomimetic studies of these processes, using various model systems, have important advantages: in some cases they allow for identifying short-lived intermediates, formed metabolically, and direct monitoring of the systems' properties by NMR. Once identified, they may be synthesized in large amount to investigate their adverse effects, if any. Biomimetic studies allow for monitoring reactions at low temperature seeking transient intermediates and evaluation of activation and detoxification mechanisms as well as mode of action based on chiral isomers. This, in turn, allows for determination of whether certain compounds act directly, on preactivation, or both, and the possible design of safer pesticides. This paper covers over three decades of extensive fundamental and applied research that has been carried out at the Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory (ECTL) at the University of California at Berkeley under the supervision of Prof. John E. Casida. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Adiri T.,Tel Aviv University | Marciano D.,Israel Institute for Biological Research | Cohen Y.,Tel Aviv University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

We report on the first secondary and tertiary complexes of the pillar[5]arene derivative 3 with xenon in water. We show that the chemical shift of the encapsulated xenon provides information on the type of the formed complex suggesting that 3 has the potential to be used as a platform for NMR biosensors. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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