Sindh, Pakistan

Isra University of Pakistan
Sindh, Pakistan

Isra University is located at Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. It contains Faculties of Medicine and Allied Medical science, Dentistry and Allied science, Engineering Science and Technology, Commerce Economics and Management science and a School of Nursing. As per HEC rankings, Isra university ranks at 4th under Medical Universities category Pakistan Isra University is located on National Highway, 5 km from Hyderabad City Center. It is accessible from surrounding areas of Gudu and Jamshoro via Hyderabad bypass, and Latifabad, Mirpurkhas and Badin via channel bypass. The National Highway connects it to the north of the Sindh province. The campus is spread over 10 acres of land. Wikipedia.

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Kazi A.,Isra University of Pakistan
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

This paper lays emphasis on the riverine floods (natural hazards), which are more frequent than other types of flood affecting Sindh. Nevertheless, a brief description of the other types of floods is also included. River Indus and its tributaries cut across Pakistan. The river basin so evolved covers approximately 65 % of the total area of the country. The major part of the river basin in Pakistan lies in the province of Sindh, which is prone to floods. It poses a major environmental hazard, particularly when the flood waters overtop, a few km wide river channel; the natural floodplain, confined by the manmade levees (flood protective embankments/bunds), several kilometers apart, constructed on both sides of the channel, forms the riverine area (manmade flood plain). The latter, locally known as the katcha area, is spread over an area totaling about 8,500 km2, and agricultural crops, which are the backbone of economic prosperity of Sindh, are partly grown in the flood plain of River Indus. The worst floods do not occur every year, but when they do, they play havoc in the riverine area, occupied by crops. Furthermore, there are three barrages constructed at Guddu, Sukkar, and Kotri, in which manmade feeder canals control the floods, as well as enabling the river water to irrigate over 60,000 km2 of agricultural land, falling within the command area of these canals. It may be noted that there are other types of flood, including the pluvial floods, urban/stormwater floods, flash floods, and coastal, as well as groundwater floods that also occur in Sindh. A brief description of these floods is also included, and an attempt is made to make an assessment of occurrence of the riverine floods. Also, suggestions are put forward to mitigate the influence of these floods, and through light on participatory management practices considering safety, scientific, technical, social, and political dimensions, aimed at mitigating and controlling the flood hazards. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Haider G.,Isra University of Pakistan
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Sub-fertility is inability to ensure child bearing when it is wanted. Prevalence of sub-fertility in industrialised countries has been quoted as 20%, and seems to be on the rise. Traditional way to assess the uterine cavity, tubal structure and tubal patency was hysterosalpingography but it has now been largely superseded by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of laparoscopy in establishing diagnosis of female infertility. This descriptive study was conducted in Gynaecology Unit of Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan from 28th August 2000 to 1st July 2001. Total 200 sub-fertile patients attended the gynaecology OPD. Out of these 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy and dye test who were suspected cases of endometriosis, abnormal HSG and unexplained infertility. Those patients who had medical disorders and contraindication for laparoscopy were excluded from study. Detailed history of every patient was recorded on a proforma and physical examination was performed. Laparoscopy was scheduled in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Data were analysed using SPSS 11. Frequency and percentages were calculated to describe the results. Out of 200 sub-fertile patients total 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy. Twenty (66%) patients were in primary infertility group while 10 (33%) patients were in secondary infertility group. Eleven (55%) patients of primary infertility belong to age group of 18-25 years while 6 (60%) patients of secondary infertility belong to age group of 26-33 years (TABLE 1). Mean duration of sub fertility at time of presentation in primary infertility group was 1.95 years while in secondary infertility was 2.70 years (Table 2). In primary infertility group main associated symptoms were dysmenorrhoeal in 8 (40%), irregular cycles 5 (25%), and dyspareunia in 4 (20%). In secondary infertility group 3 (30%) patients had dysmenorrhoeal and dyspareunia while 2 (20%) had irregular cycles. The commonest cause observed in patients with primary infertility was endometriosis spots which accounted for 11 (55%). In secondary infertility tubal occlusion was more common which accounted for 3 (30%). Laparoscopic procedures are less invasive, more convenient and more precise for diagnosis of sub-fertility in women.

Shah A.A.,Isra University of Pakistan | Khand F.,Isra University of Pakistan | Khand T.U.,Indus Medical College
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: To examine the effect of smoking on serum xanthine oxidase, malondialdehyde, α- tocopherol and ascorbic acid levels in healthy adult male subjects.Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was carried out at Isra University Hyderabad from July 2012 to December 2012. One hundred and twenty apparently healthy adult male subjects (60 smokers and 60 non-smokers) included in present study, were recruited from Jaindal kot, a small village located midway between Hyderabad and Matiari. Serum samples from smokers and non-smokers were analyzed for xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels by standard kit methods, while for ascorbic acid and alphatocopherol by spectrophotometric methods.Results: The mean xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels measured in healthy smokers were 0.30±0.05 mg/dl and 37.50±4.05 μmoles/l respectively as against 0.25±0.04 mg/dl and 19.86±2.21μmoles/l in non-smokers. Both xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly (p<0.001) raised in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. Likewise, mean vitamin E and vitamin C levels were respectively 0.69±0.37 mg/dl and 0.80±0.16 mg/dl in healthy smokers compared to 1.14±0.43 mg/dl and 1.22±0.29 mg/ dl in non-smokers. The concentrations of both these vitamins were significantly (p<0.001) lower in smokers than in non-smokers.Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that smoking had significantly increased xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels and decreased vitamins C and E (antioxidants) levels. These findings suggest that smokers have to take additional amounts of vitamins C and E in order to avoid deleterious effects of smoking on their health. © 2015, Professional Medical Publications. All rights reserved.

Hussain Z.A.,Isra University of Pakistan | Hussain S.A.,Isra University of Pakistan | Hussain F.A.,Isra University of Pakistan
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of H1N1 among medical students, their perceptions, and behavioral intentions in the wake of the H1N1 pandemic influenza. There were significant gaps in important self-isolation protocols and preventive measures. Increased contact with both patients and colleagues can lead to unintentional transmission and contraction of influenza. Universities should introduce and encourage infection control guidelines into routine curriculum. © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Mahmood A.,Isra University of Pakistan | Illahi A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Syed A.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Choudhury P.K.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2013

This article reports the studies of the effect on waves propagating in silver metal due to L-nihility (ε = 0,μ = 1). For this purpose, a plane wave is considered to be incident from air to half space of silver metal (z > 0), and the response of metal is observed at the L-nihility frequency which falls within the optical frequency range. It is shown that no counterposition, negative phase velocity and orthogonal phase velocity are exhibited by the silver metal at L-nihility frequency. Phase velocity is plotted against incident angles and the corresponding effects on the Minkowski momentum density are noticed. Numerical results are compared with those of the optical refraction in silver metal, and interesting points are highlighted. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Brohi Z.P.,Isra University of Pakistan
JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2012

To observe the frequency and severity of perineal tears during vaginal delivery. It was a prospective observational study done at the Countess Lady Duffrin Fund Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan, from December 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010. Women with full-term singleton pregnancy primigravida or multigravida, in active labour were included in the study. Patients with pre-term labour, breech presentation and antepartum haemorrhage were excluded, leaving the study population to be 147/1488. A predesigned structured proforma was used after informed verbal consent by the patient. All results were analysed on SPSS version 11. Frequencies and percentages were calculated, while Spearman's rho test (two-tailed) was applied for categorical variables. A p-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. The frequency of perineal tears in our study was 147/1488 (9.8%). The mean age was 28.08 +/- 7.47, ranging between 17-42 years. The vast majority, 100 (68%) delivered spontaneously, 45 (30.6%) were delivered with help of the forceps, and only 2 (1.4%) had vacuum delivery. Parity, oxytocin use, mediolateral episiotomy, forceps use, weight of babies > 3.6 kg were significantly associated with perineal tears. Perineal tears cause considerable post-natal morbidity. Identification of risk factors, vigilant monitoring during labour and good perineal support is recommended for minimising the risk of perineal trauma as well as morbidity.

Khanzada T.W.,Isra University of Pakistan
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Thyroidectomy is a very common surgical procedure worldwide and is performed by surgeons with varied training. The outcome and complication rates are largely dependent on surgeon's skill and experience, the extent of surgery, indication of surgery and number of thyroid surgeries performed at that particular centre. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of postoperative complications after thyroid surgery in Hyderabad, Pakistan. It was a descriptive study and was carried out at 2 private hospitals including a teaching University Hospital over a period of 3 years from April 2005 to March 2008. All patients with goitre, who underwent any sort of thyroid surgery, were included in this study. Patients' bio-data including name, age sex, clinical status of thyroid, thyroid function tests, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration cytology and operative procedure, findings, post operative complications and histopathology reports were recorded. Data were analysed using SPSS 16.0. The overall postoperative complication rate was 10.7%. Postoperative hypocalcaemia was the most frequent complication observed in 3.5% of all patients followed by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury noted in 2.8% patients. The less common complications were bleeding, seroma formation and wound infection. Majority of these complications were associated with total thyroidectomy, male gender, and in patients with age more than 30 years. The commonest post thyroidectomy complication was hypocalcaemia. Male gender, old age, and extensive thyroid surgery were associated with increased complication rate.

Meo S.A.,King Saud University | Al Masri A.A.,King Saud University | Usmani A.M.,King Saud University | Memon A.N.,Isra University of Pakistan | Zaidi S.Z.,King Fahad Medical City
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives:This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries.Materials and Methods:In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters.Results:The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes.Conclusion:The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects. © 2013 Meo et al.

Samad A.,Isra University of Pakistan | Khanzada T.W.,Isra University of Pakistan | Kumar B.,Isra University of Pakistan
Journal of Pediatric Urology | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the number of days taken by the Plastibell to fall off after circumcision and the Plastibell impaction rate in various age groups. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of male babies who underwent circumcision using the Plastibell technique. Patients were followed up 1 week postoperatively as well as soon after the Plastibell had fallen off. Results: Mean age was 14.3 months and mean weight 8.2 kg at time of surgery. The average time taken for the Plastibell to fall off after circumcision for babies under 3 months was 8.7 days; this period gradually increased to 16.8 days for children over 5 years of age. The overall complication rate was 7.4%. Plastibell impaction was the commonest complication, encountered after 6.1% of procedures, and was managed by cutting the Plastibell. The impaction rate was only 2.3% for babies under 3 months, but gradually increased to 26.9% for children over 5 years. Conclusion: The time taken by the Plastibell to fall off spontaneously as well as the Plastibell impaction rate increases gradually with age. In view of the overall safety, comfort and absence of any long-term complication, this procedure justifies recommendation in all children aged under 1 year, but its use is debatable in older children. © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company.

Abbas Z.,Aga Khan University | Abbas Z.,OMI Hospital | Memon M.S.,Isra University of Pakistan | Mithani H.,OMI Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2014

Background: Published experience of treating chronic hepatitis D patients with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-α is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 48 weeks of treatment with PEG-IFN in naive patients outside the clinical trial setting, in the real world. Methods: Patients with chronic hepatitis D were treated with PEG-IFN. The primary end points were sustained clearance of HDV RNA and normal alanine aminotrans-ferase (ALT) at 24 weeks post-treatment. Results: The total number of patients treated with PEG-IFN was 104; 91 males, mean age ±sd 30.1 ±10.0 years (range 15-55). Cirrhosis was present in 41 patients. With an intention-to-treat analysis, end of treatment virological response (ETR) was achieved in 44 (42.3%), normalization of ALT in 38 (35%) and a combined response in 23 (22.1%) patients. Sustained virological response (SVR) at 24 weeks post-treatment was seen in 24 (23.1%) patients each for the virological and bio-chemical responses and in 13 (12.5%) as combined response. Both ETR and SVR were associated with a negative HDV RNA at 24 weeks of treatment (P=0.001 and P=0.000, respectively). Detectable HDV RNA at this point had a positive predictive value of 0.95 (range 0.85-0.99) for detectable RNA at 6 months post-treatment. End of treatment biological response, that is, normal ALT at the end of treatment was also a predictor of ETR and SVR (P=0.004 and P=0.041, respectively). Conclusions: Treatment with PEG-IFN for hepatitis D is of limited efficacy. Detectable HDV RNA at 24 weeks of treatment is a predictor for a failed SVR. © 2014 International Medical Press.

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