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East Kilbride, United Kingdom

Feneyrol J.,University of Lorraine | Ohnenstetter D.,University of Lorraine | Giuliani G.,University of Lorraine | Fallick A.E.,Isotope Geosciences Unit | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Mineralogist | Year: 2012

The Namalulu tsavorite (vanadian grossular up to 0.80 wt.% V 2O 3) deposit in northeastern Tanzania occurs in metasomatized graphitic gneiss overlain by a dolomitic marble unit. These rocks belong to the Neoproterozoic metamorphic Mozambique Belt. The graphitic gneiss is composed of quartz, V-bearing kyanite (up to 0.4 wt.% V2O3), V-bearing muscovite (up to 1.0 wt.% V2O3), V-bearing rutile (up to 1.9 wt.% V2O3), and graphite. This rock is affected by calcic metasomatism precipitating calcite and mobilizing the elements for tsavorite crystallization in quartz-calcite veins. The dolomitic marble unit hosts an anhydrite-gypsum-dolomite lens (lens I) and a calcite-scapolite-diopside-sulfides-graphite lens (lens II). This last unit is characterized by the presence of F-bearing minerals (tremolite, phlogopite, tainiolite, titanite), with up to 9.4 wt.% F for tainiolite, and Ba-bearing minerals (feldspar, phlogopite), with up to 7.5 wt.% BaO for feldspar. Lithium (up to 2.0 wt.% Li 2O) and boron (up to 110 ppm) are also present in tainiolite, as well as in F-bearing tremolite. This is the first description of metamorphic tainiolite. The protoliths of the Namalulu rocks correspond to organic-rich black shales, pure and magnesian carbonates, and evaporites. They were presumably deposited in a marine coastal sabkha located at the eastern margin of the Congo-Kalahari cratons bounded by the Mozambique Ocean during early Neoproterozoic. Tsavorite formed in the Ca-metasomatized gneiss during amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism at 5.6-6.7 kbar and 630 ± 30 °C.

Petersson J.,Gothenburg University | Fallick A.E.,Isotope Geosciences Unit | Broman C.,University of Stockholm | Eliasson T.,Geological Survey of Sweden
Lithos | Year: 2014

A number of episyenite occurrences within the Neoproterozoic Bohus granite, southwestern Sweden, were investigated in order to elucidate their genesis and past associated fluid regimes. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and O-H isotope systematics integrated with information from detailed mineralogy reveal a paragenetic succession within individual episyenites, including: (1) albitization of plagioclase, accompanied by dissolution of quartz, with a vuggy feldspathic reservoir rock as a result (2) resumed infilling and replacement of igneous Fe-Ti-phases by various phyllosilicates (muscovite, chlorite and/or illite)±hematite assemblages and quartz, due to rift-related reactivation and (3) sporadic argillitic alteration and precipitation of fracture calcite. Although sparse owing to later overprinting, there are a few remnants that provide arguments for the involvement of meteoric water, shifted to a more 18O-rich composition, during the initial stage of dissolution and albitization. The main vug-filling phase is proposed to be associated with the ingress of surface-derived fluids with negative δ18O values, during the regional thermal anomaly accompanying the development of the nearby Permo-Carboniferous Oslo Rift at ~250Ma. The fluids involved during this event show consistently a marked, but variable 18O-depletion and resemble the modern-day shield brines, with modal salinities of 11-24 wt.% NaCl eq., low NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2) weight ratios and no discernible CO2. Even though no P-T path can be defined for this phase, the fluid pressure can be restricted to 0.3-0.8kbar and temperature to 160-280°C, assuming a sedimentary overburden of ~3km. An overall variability in the δ18O and δD data can mainly be ascribed to (1) precipitation from fluids affected by isotopic exchange with the host rock and/or sedimentary overburden under highly variable water/rock ratios, and to some extent with (2) varying degrees of partial re-equilibration during subsequent hydrothermal interaction at lower temperatures, as emphasized by the presence of fluid inclusions of suspected secondary origin in quartz. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Herrington R.J.,Natural History Museum in London | Scotney P.M.,University of Southampton | Scotney P.M.,Waste Recycling Group Ltd | Roberts S.,University of Southampton | And 2 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2011

Whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O analyses of volcanic rocks and 3He/4He analyses of sulphides and sulphates from mineralized rocks on Wetar, Indonesia indicate a variable contribution of assimilated crustal material or sediment sourced from the subducted Australian craton to the south. These new data support the idea of progressive source contamination with precisely dated events showing that Wetar Island hosts the most extreme examples of crustal assimilation in the region. The increased continental contamination occurs during the Pliocene (Zanclian to Piacenzian) during distinct magmatic events between 5 and 4Ma, and at 2.4Ma when 87Sr/86Sr ratios in unaltered lavas, with whole-rock δ18O values between 5.7 and 9.6‰, increase from 0.707484 to extreme radiogenic values of 0.711656. The earlier of these magmatic events is important in the generation of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the mineralization recorded on Wetar. Samples from this yield radiogenic 3He/4He ratios between 0.5 and 1.4 R/RA, similar to the data from volcanic rocks on nearby Romang. The later magmatic event coincides with the arrival of the Australian Continental Margin at the subduction zone along the Banda arc. Progressive incorporation of continental-sourced components into the source region below the Wetar Island edifice coincides with the formation of gold-rich volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits hosted within the contaminated volcanic pile. © 2010.

Magna T.,ETH Zurich | Magna T.,University of Munster | Magna T.,Czech Geological Survey | Wiechert U.,ETH Zurich | And 5 more authors.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

Lithium (Li) isotopes are thought to provide a powerful proxy for the recycling of crustal material, affected by low temperature alteration, through the mantle. We present Li isotope compositions for basaltic volcanic rocks from Hengill, Iceland, and Jan Mayen in order to examine possible links between ocean island volcanism and recycled oceanic crust and to address recent suggestions that mantle 3He/4He is also related to recycling of ancient slabs. Basaltic glasses spanning a range of chemical enrichment from the Hengill fissure system define an inverse correlation between δ7Li (3.8-6.9‰) and 3He/4He (12-20 RA). The high-3He/4He basalts have low δ18O as well as excess Eu and high Nb/U, but carry no Li isotope evidence of being the product of recycling of altered slab or wedge material. In fact, there is no clear correlation between Li or He isotopes on the one hand and any of the other fingerprints of recycled slab components. The low-3He/4He samples do have elevated Nb/U, Sr/Nd, positive Eu anomalies and high δ7Li (∼6.9‰), providing evidence of a cumulate-enriched source that could be part of an ancient altered ocean floor slab. Basalts from Jan Mayen are characterized by large degrees of enrichment in incompatible trace elements typical of EM-like basalts but have homogeneous δ7Li typical of depleted mantle (3.9-4.7‰) providing evidence for a third mantle source in the North Atlantic. It appears that oceanic basalts can display a wide range in isotope and trace element compositions associated with recycled components whilst exhibiting no sign of modern surface-altered slab or wedge material from the Li isotope composition. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Giuliani G.,British Petroleum | Fallick A.E.,Isotope Geosciences Unit | Feneyrol J.,British Petroleum | Ohnenstetter D.,British Petroleum | And 2 more authors.
Mineralium Deposita | Year: 2011

The combination of oxygen isotope composition with V-Cr-Mn trace element concentrations of V-bearing garnets (tsavorites) originating from the main deposits of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt is reported for the first time. The database enables the identification of the geological and geographical sources of the main productive areas from northern and southern Tanzania, Kenya, and Madagascar. Three consistent sets of δ18O values between 9. 5‰ and 11. 0‰, 11. 6‰ and 14. 5‰, and 15. 5‰ and 21. 1‰ have been recognized for primary deposits hosted in graphitic gneisses related to the Neoproterozic metasedimentary series. The δ18O value of tsavorite is a good tracer of the environment of its formation; the δ18O of the fluid in equilibrium with tsavorite was buffered by the host rock during metamorphism and fluid-rock interaction. This study is a first step in characterizing the geochemistry of gem tsavorite from most of the deposits and occurrences worldwide. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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