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Ling S.Y.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Huizinga R.B.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Mayo P.R.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Larouche R.,inVentiv Health | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Aims Voclosporin is a novel calcineurin inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between voclosporin and a CYP3A inhibitor, inducer and substrate and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor and substrate were evaluated. Methods Voclosporin 0.4 mg kg-1 was administered to 24 subjects in each of five studies, as follows: every 12 h (Q12H) alone and concomitantly with ketoconazole 400 mg once daily (QD); single dose before and single dose after rifampin 600 mg QD; Q12H where midazolam 7.5 mg was administered as a single dose alone before voclosporin and with last the dose of voclosporin; Q12H alone and concomitantly with verapamil 80 mg every 8 h; and Q12H with digoxin 0.25 mg QD the noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters maximal concentration (C max) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were obtained, and geometric least squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were evaluated. Results Ketoconazole increased voclosporin Cmax (6.4-fold) and AUC (18-fold); rifampin reduced voclosporin AUC (0.9-fold); voclosporin did not change exposure of midazolam or α-hydroxy-midazolam; verapamil increased voclosporin Cmax (2.1-fold) and AUC (2.7-fold); and voclosporin increased digoxin Cmax (0.5-fold), AUC (0.25-fold) and urinary excretion (0.2-fold). Conclusions Administration of voclosporin concomitantly with strong inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A resulted in increased and decreased exposures, respectively, and should be considered contraindicated. Drug-drug interactions involving voclosporin and CYP3A substrates are not expected. Administration of voclosporin concomitantly with inhibitors and substrates of P-glycoprotein resulted in increased voclosporin and substrate exposures, respectively. Appropriate concentration and safety monitoring is recommended with co-administration of voclosporin and P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.


Mayo P.R.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Huizinga R.B.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Ling S.Y.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Freitag D.G.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Voclosporin (VCS) is a novel calcineurin (CN) inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. These studies evaluated the single ascending dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD, CN activity) of VCS and the effect of food. VCS was administered orally in single doses of 0.25 through 4.5 mg/kg in 62 subjects in the single ascending dose study and as a single oral 1.5 mg/kg dose to 18 subjects after fasting, consumption of a low-fat and high-fat meal. Non-compartmental PK, PD, and PKPD correlation were evaluated. Following single oral doses, systemic exposure increased in a linear manner and demonstrated 1:1 dose-proportional, first-order linear PK above 1.5 mg/kg. VCS inhibited CN activity in a dose-related fashion with maximal inhibition peaking at 3.0 mg/kg. PKPD correlation indicated an EC50 of 78.3 6.8 ng/mL. Administration of VCS with a low-fat and high-fat meal decreased Cmax by 29% and 53%, respectively, and AUCinf by 15% and 25%, respectively. Following ascending single doses of VCS, exposure increased in a linear fashion. A food effect on exposure was demonstrated, with a more pronounced effect following a high-fat meal. VCS concentrations were also found to correlate with CN activity. © The Author(s) 2013.


Mayo P.R.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Ling S.Y.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Huizinga R.B.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Freitag D.G.,Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The aims of this population-pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (POP-PKPD) analysis of voclosporin in renal allograft patients were to build a POP-PKPD model for voclosporin and calcineurin activity (CNa) and identify clinically relevant covariates that could assist dosing of the drug. POP-PKPD modeling was performed using a stochastic approximation of the standard expectation maximization (SAEM) algorithm for nonlinear mixed-effects as implemented in Monolix™ 3.2. Voclosporin whole blood concentrations were obtained from de novo renal allograft patients and assayed using a validated LC/MS/MS assay. CNa was measured using a 32P-radiolabeled assay. A two-compartment model with simultaneous sigmoid inhibitory Emax model was used to describe the PKPD relationship between voclosporin concentration and CNa. The POP-PKPD model was then utilized to simulate an optimal initial dosing strategy. Eighty-seven patients were included in the POP-PKPD study. Population mean estimates (relative standard error, rse) for oral clearance (CL/F) and first compartment volume of distribution (V1), were 717 mL min-1 (35%) and 2010 mL (17%), respectively. Maximum CNa Inhibition (Imax), effective concentration (C50), and baseline immunosuppression (S0) were 0.87 pmol/min/mg (8.0%), 123 ng/mL (10%), and 1.15 pmol/min/mg (4.0%), respectively. Covariate analyses demonstrated that age and body surface area significantly influenced CL/F: CLi=717(Agei/48.8)-0.57(BSAi/1.99)1.1, while serum triglycerides significantly altered S0: S0i=1.15(TRIGi/1.97)0. 15. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.


Patent
Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Date: 2012-02-22

Cyclosporine derivatives are disclosed which possess enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity over naturally occurring and other presently known cyclosporin and cyclosporine derivatives. The cyclosporine derivatives of the present invention are produced by chemical and isotopic substitution of the cyclosporine A (CsA) molecule by: (1) Chemical substitution and optionally deuterium substitution of amino acid 1; and (2) deuterium substitution at key sites of metabolism of the cyclosporine A molecule such as amino acids 1, 4, 9. Also disclosed are methods of producing the cyclosporine derivatives and method of producing immunosuppression with reduced toxicity with the disclosed cyclosporine derivatives.


Patent
Isotechnika Pharma Inc. | Date: 2011-12-14

Analogues of cyclosporin-A are disclosed comprising modifications of the substituents as the positions of amino acids 1 and 3, according to the following Formula. The disclosed compounds include compounds having affinity for cyclophilin, including cyclophilin-A, and reduced immunosuppressivity in comparison with cyclosporin-A and analogs thereof modified solely at position 1.


PubMed | Isotechnika Pharma Inc.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: British journal of clinical pharmacology | Year: 2014

Voclosporin is a novel calcineurin inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between voclosporin and a CYP3A inhibitor, inducer and substrate and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor and substrate were evaluated.Voclosporin 0.4 mg kg(-1) was administered to 24 subjects in each of five studies, as follows: every 12 h (Q12H) alone and concomitantly with ketoconazole 400 mg once daily (QD); single dose before and single dose after rifampin 600 mg QD; Q12H where midazolam 7.5 mg was administered as a single dose alone before voclosporin and with last the dose of voclosporin; Q12H alone and concomitantly with verapamil 80 mg every 8 h; and Q12H with digoxin 0.25 mg QD. The noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters maximal concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were obtained, and geometric least squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were evaluated.Ketoconazole increased voclosporin Cmax (6.4-fold) and AUC (18-fold); rifampin reduced voclosporin AUC (0.9-fold); voclosporin did not change exposure of midazolam or -hydroxy-midazolam; verapamil increased voclosporin Cmax (2.1-fold) and AUC (2.7-fold); and voclosporin increased digoxin Cmax (0.5-fold), AUC (0.25-fold) and urinary excretion (0.2-fold).Administration of voclosporin concomitantly with strong inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A resulted in increased and decreased exposures, respectively, and should be considered contraindicated. Drug-drug interactions involving voclosporin and CYP3A substrates are not expected. Administration of voclosporin concomitantly with inhibitors and substrates of P-glycoprotein resulted in increased voclosporin and substrate exposures, respectively. Appropriate concentration and safety monitoring is recommended with co-administration of voclosporin and P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors.


PubMed | Isotechnika Pharma Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical pharmacology | Year: 2013

Voclosporin (VCS) is a novel calcineurin (CN) inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. These studies evaluated the single ascending dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD, CN activity) of VCS and the effect of food. VCS was administered orally in single doses of 0.25 through 4.5 mg/kg in 62 subjects in the single ascending dose study and as a single oral 1.5mg/kg dose to 18 subjects after fasting, consumption of a low-fat and high-fat meal. Non-compartmental PK, PD, and PKPD correlation were evaluated. Following single oral doses, systemic exposure increased in a linear manner and demonstrated 1:1 dose-proportional, first-order linear PK above 1.5mg/kg. VCS inhibited CN activity in a dose-related fashion with maximal inhibition peaking at 3.0 mg/kg. PKPD correlation indicated an EC50 of 78.36.8ng/mL. Administration of VCS with a low-fat and high-fat meal decreased C(max) by 29% and 53%, respectively, and AUC(inf) by 15% and 25%, respectively. Following ascending single doses of VCS, exposure increased in a linear fashion. A food effect on exposure was demonstrated, with a more pronounced effect following a high-fat meal. VCS concentrations were also found to correlate with CN activity.


PubMed | Isotechnika Pharma Inc.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: Journal of clinical pharmacology | Year: 2015

The aims of this population-pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (POP-PKPD) analysis of voclosporin in renal allograft patients were to build a POP-PKPD model for voclosporin and calcineurin activity (CNa) and identify clinically relevant covariates that could assist dosing of the drug. POP-PKPD modeling was performed using a stochastic approximation of the standard expectation maximization (SAEM) algorithm for nonlinear mixed-effects as implemented in Monolix 3.2. Voclosporin whole blood concentrations were obtained from de novo renal allograft patients and assayed using a validated LC/MS/MS assay. CNa was measured using a (32)P-radiolabeled assay. A two-compartment model with simultaneous sigmoid inhibitory Emax model was used to describe the PKPD relationship between voclosporin concentration and CNa. The POP-PKPD model was then utilized to simulate an optimal initial dosing strategy. Eighty-seven patients were included in the POP-PKPD study. Population mean estimates (relative standard error, rse) for oral clearance (CL/F) and first compartment volume of distribution (V1), were 717mLmin(-1) (35%) and 2010mL (17%), respectively. Maximum CNa Inhibition (Imax), effective concentration (C50), and baseline immunosuppression (S0) were 0.87pmol/min/mg (8.0%), 123ng/mL (10%), and 1.15pmol/min/mg (4.0%), respectively. Covariate analyses demonstrated that age and body surface area significantly influenced CL/F: CLi=717(Agei/48.8)-0.57(BSAi/1.99)1.1, while serum triglycerides significantly altered S0: S0i=1.15(TRIGi/1.97)0.15.

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