Iceland Geosurvey ISOR Reykjavik Iceland

Iceland

Iceland Geosurvey ISOR Reykjavik Iceland

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Kim D.,Cornell University | Brown L.D.,Cornell University | Arnason K.,Iceland Geosurvey ISOR Reykjavik Iceland | Agustsson K.,Iceland Geosurvey ISOR Reykjavik Iceland | Blanck H.,Iceland Geosurvey ISOR Reykjavik Iceland
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2017

The details of magma plumbing beneath active volcanoes remain a major challenge in geochemistry, geophysics, and volcanic hazard evaluation. Here we apply a relatively novel variation of seismic interferometry, which we call Virtual Reflection Seismic Profiling, to produce a high-resolution image of a known crustal magma body. The technique takes advantage of recent advances in both seismic instrumentation (dense arrays) and seismic analysis (seismic interferometry). We have applied this technique to data recently acquired at an iconic volcanic system, Krafla, which lies on the mid-Atlantic ridge as exposed in northern Iceland. What make this particular site exceptional are encounters with rhyolitic magma in two drill holes, K-39 and Iceland Deep Drilling Project-1 (IDDP-1). These known magma bodies represent a unique calibration opportunity for surface geophysical measurements of magma distribution at depth. In this study, we produced a stacked, seismic reflection section by applying common depth point processing techniques to virtual shot gathers derived from interferometry of P waves from microearthquakes generated by tectonic, magmatic, and/or geothermal activity. We observe a strong, coherent reflection on the seismic section at a travel time corresponding to the depth at which magma was encountered in the IDDP-1 wellbore. We interpret this reflection to be from magma or magma-related fluids. Additional coherent reflections may correspond to other components of the magma plumbing beneath Krafla. These results represent a promising new technique for structural imaging with natural sources that can be applied to a wide array of geologic and energy problems that involve natural or induced seismic clusters. ©2017. The Authors.

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