Reykjavík, Iceland
Reykjavík, Iceland
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Marks N.,University of California at Davis | Schiffman P.,University of California at Davis | Zierenberg R.A.,University of California at Davis | Franzson H.,ISOR | Fridleifsson G.O.,Hitaveita Sudurnesja Ltd. Brekkustigur 36
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2010

The Reykjanes geothermal system is a seawater-recharged hydrothermal system that appears to be analogous to seafloor hydrothermal systems in terms of host rock type and low water/rock alteration. The similarities make the Reykjanes system a useful proxy for seafloor vents. At some time during the Pleistocene, the system was dominated by meteoric water recharge, and fluid composition at Reykjanes has evolved through time as a result of changing proportions of meteoric water influx as well as differing pressure and temperature conditions. The purpose of this study is to characterize secondary mineralization, degree of metasomatic alteration, and bulk composition of cuttings from well RN-17 from the Reykjanes geothermal system. The basaltic host rock includes hyaloclastite, breccia, tuff, extrusive basalt, diabase, as well as a marine sedimentary sequence. The progressive hydrothermal alteration sequence observed with increasing depth results from reaction of geothermal fluids with the basaltic host rock. An assemblage of greenschist facies alteration minerals, including actinolite, prehnite, epidote and garnet, occurs at depths as shallow as 350 m; these minerals are commonly found in Icelandic geothermal systems at temperatures above 250 °C (Bird and Spieler, 2004). This requires hydrostatic pressures that exceed the present-day depth to boiling point curve, and therefore must record alteration at higher fluid pressures, perhaps as a result of Pleistocene glaciation. Major, minor, and trace element profiles of the cuttings indicate transitional MORB to OIB composition with limited metasomatic shifts in easily mobilized elements. Changes in MgO, K2O and loss on ignition indicate that metasomatism is strongly correlated with protolith properties. The textures of alteration minerals reveal alteration style to be strongly dependent on protolith as well. Hyaloclastites are intensely altered with calc-silicate alteration assemblages comprising calcic hydrothermal plagioclase, grandite garnet, prehnite, epidote, hydrothermal clinopyroxene, and titanite. In contrast, crystalline basalts and intrusive rocks display a range in alteration intensity from essentially unaltered to pervasive and nearly complete albitization of igneous feldspar and uralitization of clinopyroxene. Hydrothermal anorthite (An92-An98) occurs in veins in the most altered basalt cuttings and is significantly more calcic than igneous feldspar (An48-An79). Amphibole compositions change from actinolite to hornblende at depth. Hydrothermal clinopyroxene, which occurs in veins, has greater variation in Fe content and is systematically more calcic than igneous pyroxene and also lacks uralitic textures. Solid solutions of prehnite, epidote, and garnet indicate evolving equilibria with respect to aluminum and ferric iron. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Marteinsson V.,Environment and Genetics | Marteinsson V.,Agricultural University of Iceland | Klonowski A.,Environment and Genetics | Reynisson E.,Environment and Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2015

Colonization of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focused on the settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associated vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soil types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with the plate count method at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soil samples, and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 181 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between nutrient deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soil samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104 1 × 105 cells gg-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significantly higher (1 × 1061 × 109 cells gg-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated samples and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 and 172 m depth at 80 and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2015 Author(s).

Schiffman P.,University of California at Davis | Zierenberg R.A.,University of California at Davis | Mortensen A.K.,ISOR | Frioleifsson G.T.,HS Orka hf | Elders W.A.,University of California at Riverside
Geothermics | Year: 2014

A rhyolite magma body within the Krafla geothermal system that was encountered at a depth of 2.1km during drilling of the IDDP-1 borehole is producing high temperature metamorphism within a conductive boundary layer (CBL) in adjacent host rocks. Cuttings recovered during drilling within a few meters of the intrusive contact in IDDP-1 are mainly comprised of granoblastic hornfelses, the rock type which confirms the presence of the CBL at the base of the IDDP-1 bore hole. The two pyroxenes in these hornfelses record temperatures that are in the range of 800-950°C. The minimum heat flow across the CBL is 23Wm-2. Country rocks at distances beyond 30m of the intrusive contact are essentially unaltered, implying that they have been emplaced very recently and/or as yet unaffected by hydrothermal fluid flow. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Frioleifsson G.O.,HS Orka hf | Sigurdsson O.,HS Orka hf | Porbjornsson D.,ISOR | Karlsdottir R.,ISOR | And 3 more authors.
Geothermics | Year: 2014

Preparation has begun for drilling the second deep IDDP well into the saline Reykjanes high-temperature field in SW-Iceland. The site selection for the IDDP-2 drillhole is under review and the prime candidate is essentially the same as the 1st priority site suggested for the Reykjanes field in 2003. More recent drillhole data and new MT surveys have amplified the justification for selecting that site. Deep drilling to 4-5. km depth is an important part of the HS Orka exploration strategy for enhanced power production, either by direct use of high energy steam, or by attempting to enhance the field performance by re-injecting geothermal fluid deep into very hot rocks. Pending on several decisions and development in Iceland, outside the control of the IDDP energy consortium, the IDDP-2 well might possibly be drilled to 4-5. km depth as early as 2014. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Verney-Carron A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Vigier N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Millot R.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Hardarson B.S.,ISOR
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2015

The Li isotope signatures of hydrothermal fluids are remarkably constant (δLi7=8.0±1.9‰) irrespective of the water/rock ratio (W/. R), permeability, temperature or fluid involved (seawater or meteoric). High temperature hydrothermal fluids represent the second most significant source of Li to the ocean, yet the homogeneity of the Li isotopic signatures of this source remains to be explained and in this context, the lack of data for the corresponding altered phases is problematic. We measured Li contents and Li isotope signatures (as well as mineralogy, composition and local fluid temperature) in hyaloclastites collected from a borehole in the Hellisheidi geothermal system (Iceland) which have been altered by high temperature aqueous fluids (from 170 to 300 °C). Li is more enriched in the solid phases than the other alkali metals, highlighting its greater ability to be incorporated into secondary phases, especially at high temperatures (>250 °C). Mass balance calculations show that the low Li concentrations in hydrothermal fluids are best explained by a high water/rock ratio and a high permeability of this system. The Li isotopic signature of the altered hyaloclastites (δLi7 between +1.9 and +4.0‰) remains close to the fresh basalt at deep levels and high temperatures (290-300 °C) (as measured δLi7 range between +3.7 and +4.0‰), and decreases at shallower depths and lower temperatures (150-270 °C) (δLi7 between +1.9 and +3.1‰). A mass balance model involving basalt dissolution, secondary phase formation, and successive isotope equilibrium during the migration and the cooling of the percolating fluid was developed. The corresponding apparent mineral-fluid Li isotope fractionation factors resulting from precipitation of secondary phases (δLiminerals-fluid7) range between 0‰ at 300 °C and -8.5‰ at 170 °C and highlight a key role of chlorite. Applying the same approach to mid-ridge oceanic hydrothermal systems allows the relatively homogeneous isotope signatures of high temperature fluids of various locations to be explained. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

News Article | November 2, 2016

The Company delivered strong, consistent operating results highlighted by stable production, continued cost reductions, minimal capital expenditures, and increased Lindbergh reserves. Pengrowth's focus on all cost structures was demonstrated again in the third quarter, where operating expenses are now expected to come in approximately $72 million below original guidance (a further reduction of $7 million since the second quarter), which is trending towards the lower end of updated lower guidance. Year to date cash general and administrative (G&A) expenses fell by $18.6 million compared to 2015, continuing the trend from the second quarter, while year to date transportation expenses declined $10.4 million year over year. The Company's production performance continues to deliver exceptional results given a capital program focused only on asset maintenance with no active drilling program, allowing the Company to build cash reserves. After accounting for the impact of divested properties and scheduled turnaround activities, Pengrowth's production has remained essentially unchanged from year end 2015, demonstrating the low decline nature of Pengrowth's asset base. "Our relentless focus on both our cost structures and asset performance continues to deliver significant and sustainable results for the organization," said Derek Evans, President and Chief Executive Officer of Pengrowth. "We are in discussions with our note holders and bank lenders to negotiate additional financial flexibility for the Company as we work to reduce our debt position." Pengrowth delivered average daily production of 55,137 barrel of oil equivalent (boe) per day in the third quarter, a decline of approximately three percent from the second quarter mainly due to production interruptions from planned maintenance at Carson Creek and unplanned maintenance at the Lindbergh thermal project. Production for the first nine months of the year averaged 57,966 boe per day, which represents production on the high end of corporate guidance of 56,000 to 58,000 boe per day. Production performance in 2016, after taking account of asset sales, maintenance and turnaround activities, has remained essentially unchanged from year end 2015, underlying the stability in corporate production has been the low decline nature of the asset base coupled with the optimization efforts of Pengrowth's operations teams. Lindbergh third quarter production averaged 15,190 barrels per day (bbl per day) at an average steam oil ratio (SOR) of 2.46. Production in the quarter was two percent below second quarter production due to an unscheduled maintenance outage that required the complete shutdown of the facility for two days in September and extending for one day into October and a higher frequency of pump changes in the quarter, as the pumps reach their end of life. The net impact of these interruptions resulted in approximately 450 bbl per day of lost production during the quarter and has reduced the average annual production outlook from Lindbergh to approximately 15,600 bbl per day for the year. Pengrowth was in compliance with all financial covenants under its senior unsecured notes and credit facilities as at September 30, 2016. The Company anticipates it will remain in compliance with such covenants for the remainder of 2016 and into the middle of 2017. However, absent an improvement in oil and natural gas prices, Pengrowth may not remain in compliance with certain financial covenants in its senior unsecured notes and credit facilities during the second half of 2017. Pengrowth is proactively in discussions with the lenders of its syndicated bank facility and with the holders of its senior term notes in an effort to seek covenant amendments to provide the Company with additional financial flexibility as it works to reduce its debt position. If the Company is unable to obtain a waiver or relaxation of its debt covenants and is not able to remain in compliance with them, the senior unsecured notes and credit facilities may become due on demand and the undrawn portion of the credit facility may no longer be available to the Company. The Company's cash position at the end of the third quarter increased by $85.4 million to a total of $139.5 million of cash on hand. The Company has no scheduled debt maturities prior to the approximate $127 million of convertible debentures which are due on March 31, 2017 and expects to have $200 million of cash on the balance sheet at the end of the year. Pengrowth's $1.0 billion committed revolving credit facility remained undrawn at the end of the third quarter, resulting in the Company's total debt being essentially unchanged from the second quarter 2016, other than pursuant to the impacts of foreign exchange movements on its US dollar denominated term debt. The majority of Pengrowth's long term debt and interest payments are denominated in U.S. dollars and, as such, are subject to fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Canadian and U.S. dollars. Total debt amounted to Cdn $1.65 billion as at September 30, 2016 compared to Cdn $1.63 billion at June 30, 2016. The Company continues to evaluate asset sale opportunities. While the asset sale market remains somewhat challenged given the current commodity price environment, Pengrowth will continue with its marketing efforts on the assets it has historically had in the market, and all other monetization opportunities, including risk management contract monetization, will be pursued. The Company remains confident in its ability to complete additional transactions to further advance its debt reduction objectives. Pengrowth has realized a total of $308.5 million ($19.42 per boe) from its commodity risk management program for the first nine months ended September 30, 2016. For the fourth quarter, Pengrowth remains well hedged with 23,000 bbl per day of crude oil hedged at Cdn $83.27 per bbl and 128 million cubic feet (MMcf) per day of natural gas hedged at Cdn $3.30 per Mcf. As of September 30, 2016, Pengrowth had 18,500 bbl per day of expected 2017 crude oil hedged, using WTI fixed price contracts at an average price of Cdn $65.54 per bbl and 105 MMcf per day of expected 2017 natural gas hedged using an AECO fixed price of Cdn $3.37 per Mcf. Subsequent to the end of the quarter, the Company further monetized a portion of its 2017 commodity risk management contracts for proceeds of $9.6 million. Following these monetizations, the Company had 15,000 bbl per day of oil hedged at an average price of Cdn $62.54 per bbl and 105 MMcf per day of natural gas hedged at an average price of Cdn $3.37 per Mcf. The remaining commodity and foreign exchange hedges in place as at October 31, 2016, had unrealized mark to market value of approximately $108 million. A complete summary of Pengrowth's commodity risk management contracts in place as at September 30, 2016 is provided in Note 11 in the interim financial statements, which is available on the Company's website at The continued strong corporate production performance despite minimal capital spending in 2016 demonstrates the quality and resilience of Pengrowth's producing assets. This stable base will backstop the further development of our deep inventory of thermal and natural gas opportunities as the business climate improves. The Company is in discussions with lenders of its syndicated bank facility and with the holders of its senior term notes in an effort to gain additional financial flexibility during this challenging environment and looks forward to updating shareholders regarding these discussions in the future. Pengrowth will host an analyst call and listen only audio webcast beginning at 6:30 A.M. Mountain Time (MT) on Thursday, November 3, 2016, during which management will review Pengrowth's third quarter results and respond to questions from the analyst community. To ensure timely participation in the teleconference, callers are encouraged to dial in 10 minutes prior to the start of the call to register. Pengrowth's unaudited Financial Statements for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and related Management's Discussion and Analysis can be viewed on Pengrowth's website at They have also been filed on SEDAR at and on EDGAR at Pengrowth Energy Corporation is an intermediate Canadian producer of oil and natural gas, headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. Pengrowth's assets include the Lindbergh thermal oil, Cardium light oil, Swan Hills light oil and the Groundbirch and Bernadet Montney gas projects. Pengrowth's shares trade on both the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "PGF" and on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "PGH". All amounts are stated in Canadian dollars unless otherwise specified. When used herein, the term "boe" means barrels of oil equivalent on the basis of one boe being equal to one barrel of oil or NGLs or 6,000 cubic feet of natural gas (6 mcf: 1 bbl). Barrels of oil equivalent may be misleading, particularly if used in isolation. A conversion ratio of six mcf of natural gas to one boe is based on an energy equivalency conversion method primarily applicable at the burner tip and does not represent a value equivalency at the wellhead. All production figures stated are based on Company Interest before the deduction of royalties. All amounts are stated in Canadian dollars unless otherwise specified. All reserves, resources, reserve life index, and production information herein is based upon Pengrowth's company interest working interest share of reserves or production plus Pengrowth's royalty interest, being Pengrowth's interest in production and payment that is based on the gross production at the wellhead, before royalties and using GLJ's October 1, 2016 forecast prices and costs in respect of the September 30, 2016 Lindbergh reserve and resource update and using GLJ's January 1, 2016 forecast prices and costs in respect of the December 31, 2015 Lindbergh reserve and resource estimate. Numbers presented may not add due to rounding. The estimated value of reserves disclosed in this press release does not represent the fair market value of the reserves. The estimates of reserves and future net revenues for individual properties may not reflect the same confidence level as estimates of reserves and future net revenue for all properties, due to effects of aggregation. ISOR refers to the efficiency of a steam injection recovery process and is the measure of steam, in equivalent barrels of water required to produce one barrel of bitumen, currently or at any time. Proved Developed Producing Reserves refers to those proved reserves that are developed producing reserves. Proved Reserves refers to those reserves that can be estimated with a high degree of certainty to be recoverable; it is likely that the actual remaining quantities recovered will exceed the estimated proved reserves. Total Proved Plus Probable Reserves or 2P means the aggregate of proved reserves and probable reserves. This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of securities laws, including the "safe harbour" provisions of the Canadian securities legislation and the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking information is often, but not always, identified by the use of words such as "anticipate", "believe", "expect", "plan", "intend", "forecast", "target", "project", "guidance", "may", "will", "should", "could", "estimate", "predict" or similar words suggesting future outcomes or language suggesting an outlook. Forward-looking statements in this press release include, but are not limited to: anticipated full year operating and cash G&A expenses; expected low declines; potential outcomes from discussions with bank lenders and noteholders; expectations of $200 million of cash on hand at year end; anticipated average annual production for Lindbergh; expected overall corporate annual production; anticipated covenant compliance through 2016 and anticipated breach in 2017 and related assumptions; impact of a covenant breach; future debt maturity; impact of foreign exchange fluctuations on term debt; asset sales initiatives; risk management contracts in place and the pricing and value thereof. Forward-looking statements and information are based on current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to Pengrowth concerning anticipated financial performance, business prospects, strategies and regulatory developments. Although management considers these assumptions to be reasonable based on information currently available to it, they may prove to be incorrect. By their very nature, forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, both general and specific, and risks that predictions, forecasts, projections and other forward-looking statements will not be achieved. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on these statements as a number of important factors could cause the actual results to differ materially from the beliefs, plans, objectives, expectations and anticipations, estimates and intentions expressed in such forward-looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to: changes in general economic, market and business conditions; the volatility of oil and gas prices; fluctuations in production and development costs and capital expenditures; the imprecision of reserve estimates and estimates of recoverable quantities of oil, natural gas and liquids; Pengrowth's ability to replace and expand oil and gas reserves; geological, technical, drilling and processing problems and other difficulties in producing reserves; environmental claims and liabilities; incorrect assessments of value when making acquisitions; increases in debt service charges; the loss of key personnel; the marketability of production; defaults by third party operators; unforeseen title defects; fluctuations in foreign currency and exchange rates; fluctuations in interest rates; inadequate insurance coverage; compliance with environmental laws and regulations; actions by governmental or regulatory agencies, including changes in tax laws; the failure to qualify as a mutual fund trust; Pengrowth's ability to access external sources of debt and equity capital; the impact of foreign and domestic government programs; the occurrence of unexpected events involved in the operation and development of oil and gas properties; the Company being unable to sell assets and monetize sufficient hedges to avoid covenant breaches and the Company being unable to negotiate covenant relaxation and the potential for breeching a covenant. Further information regarding these factors may be found under the heading "Business Risks" in the MD&A and under "Risk Factors" in the AIF. The foregoing list of factors that may affect future results is not exhaustive. When relying on our forward-looking statements to make decisions, investors and others should carefully consider the foregoing factors and other uncertainties and potential events. Furthermore, the forward-looking statements contained in this press release are made as of the date of this press release, and Pengrowth does not undertake any obligation to update publicly or to revise any of the included forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable laws. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release are expressly qualified by this cautionary statement. In addition to providing measures prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Pengrowth presents additional and non-GAAP measures including adjusted net income (loss), operating netbacks, total debt before working capital, total debt including working capital, cash G&A expenses and funds flow from operations. These measures do not have any standardized meaning prescribed by GAAP and therefore are unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other companies. These measures are provided, in part, to assist readers in determining Pengrowth's ability to generate cash from operations. Pengrowth believes these measures are useful in assessing operating performance and liquidity of Pengrowth's ongoing business on an overall basis. These measures should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for, net income (loss), cash provided by operations and other measures of financial performance and liquidity reported in accordance with IFRS. Further information with respect to these additional and non-GAAP measures can be found in the MD&A.

Hannington M.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Hannington M.,University of Ottawa | Hardardottir V.,ISOR | Garbe-Schonberg D.,University of Kiel | Brown K.L.,GEOKEM
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2016

The origins of high-grade hydrothermal ore deposits are debated, but active geothermal systems provide important clues to their formation. The highest concentrations of gold are found in geothermal systems with direct links to island arc magmatism. Yet, similar concentrations have also been found in the absence of any input from arc magmas, for example, in the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Here we analyse brine samples taken from deep wells at Reykjanes and find that gold concentrations in the reservoir zone have increased over the past seven years from an average of 3 ppb to 14 ppb. The metal concentrations greatly exceed the maximum solubility of gold in the reservoir under saturated conditions and are now nearly two orders of magnitude higher than in mid-ocean ridge black smoker fluids - the direct analogues of Reykjanes deep liquids. We suggest that ongoing extraction of brine, the resulting pressure drop, and increased boiling have caused gold to drop out of solution and become trapped in the reservoir as a colloidal suspension. This process may explain how the stock of metal in the reservoirs of fossil geothermal systems could have increased over time and thus become available for the formation of gold-rich ore deposits. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Palsson B.,Landsvirkjun | Holmgeirsson S.,Landsvirkjun | Guomundsson T.,Landsvirkjun | Boasson H.,Mannvit | And 3 more authors.
Geothermics | Year: 2014

The first well of three proposed by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) was drilled in the Krafla Geothermal Field in 2008-2009 by Landsvirkjun, the National Power Company of Iceland. The well was designed to reach supercritical conditions at 4500. m, temperatures above 374. °C and pressures above 22. MPa. Drilling progress was as planned down to around 2000. m when drilling became quite challenging, including becoming stuck at 2094 and 2095. m depth, followed by twist offs and subsequent side tracking. Finally, drilling came to an end at 2096. m depth in the third leg when cuttings of fresh glass indicated the presence of a magma body at the bottom. As the well had such a rigorous well design, the steering committee of the IDDP decided to complete and flow test the well, rather than abandoning it. The well was very powerful and the project has proved to be a valuable experience for drilling supercritical wells in the future and what happens when magma is encountered. Most importantly, it has been proven that it is possible to drill and complete a well in a very hot zone and produce fluid from an environment near a magma body. If sustained long term production proves possible, the drilling of well IDDP-1 will mark a new era in power production in Krafla. © 2013.

Mortensen A.K.,ISOR | Egilson T.,ISOR | Gautason B.,ISOR | Arnadottir S.,ISOR | Guomundsson A.,Landsvirkjun
Geothermics | Year: 2014

The stratigraphy, alteration mineralogy and temperature conditions in well IDDP-1 were established through drill cutting analyses and geophysical logs. The stratigraphy comprises basaltic lava and hyaloclastite sequences extending to 1362. m succeeded by an intrusive complex. Intrusions comprise basaltic dykes, dolerites and below 2020. m, granophyre and felsites. Rhyolitic magma was intersected below 2100. m. Alteration reflects cooling in the upper ~1500. m of the reservoir. Below 1600. m temperature follows the boiling-point-depth curve. Alteration minerals are scarce in vicinity to the feed zone at 2035-2080. m correlating with a superheated steam zone above the magma, but estimated bottom-hole temperature is ~500. °C. © 2013.

Armannsson H.,ISOR | Fridriksson T.,ISOR | Gudfinnsson G.H.,ISOR | Olafsson M.,ISOR | And 2 more authors.
Geothermics | Year: 2014

The Leirbotnar field, where IDDP-01 is situated consists of an upper liquid dominated zone to 1000-1400. m depth, 190-220. °C, sulphate major anion, and a lower two phase zone, 300. °C chloride main anion. The IDDP-01 fluid is dry steam, local origin, pH 3. The major anion is chloride (20-166. mg/kg), probably of magmatic origin. The major metallic cations, Fe (5-100. mg/kg), Cr (0-6. mg/kg), Ni (0-5. mg/kg) and Mn (0.1-0.8. mg/kg) seem to be derived from the well casing and sampling equipment. The gas content is low (about 0.1%) and the gas is apparently not directly emitted from magma. © 2013.

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