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Nurdin N.,Institute Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri | Grydehoj A.,Island Dynamics
Journal of Marine and Island Cultures | Year: 2014

Efforts to preserve fragile ecosystems that focus on removing human intervention from the environment risk ignoring the political and social systems underlying environmentally destructive economic activities. In contrast, a biocultural diversity perspective allows for environmental protection to be approached with sensitivity to human needs. This paper explores the case of Karanrang Island, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, where fishing with toxins and bombs is proving detrimental to fish stocks and the surrounding coral reefs. Interviews with Karanrang fishers reveal that these destructive fishing practices are bound up with the region's punggawa-sawi political and social system of patron-client relationships. The paper shows how the informal governance operating through these patron-client relationships traps fishers into destructive fishing practices. It is argued that environmental protection efforts should take into account political and social contexts. © 2014 Institution for Marine and Island Cultures, Mokpo National University.


Grydehoj A.,Island Dynamics | Nurdin N.,Institute Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri
GeoJournal | Year: 2015

Technology has politics and plays a role in societal governance. This article explores the fishing community of Karanrang island (Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia) to consider how fishing technologies reinforce existing power structures in the local informal governance system. Informal governance actors deploy the politics of technology in order to manage a socially problematic and environmentally destructive fishing economy. In the punggawa-sawi system of patron-client relationships, fishers are economically dependent on patrons, who supply them with fishing technologies like boats, bombs, and cyanide. The patrons themselves are embedded in a complex governance network, encompassing corrupt police and officials, importers, and live food fish traders. The politics of technology contribute to maintaining the local informal governance system of patron-client relationships. This paper draws upon theories from science and technology studies and network governance to argue that although patron-client relationships are problematic in themselves, the politics of technology further maintain power imbalances. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Grydehoj A.,Island Dynamics
Journal of Marine and Island Cultures | Year: 2013

The population of the North Sea archipelago of Shetland, UK possesses a distinct sense of ethnic identity, which connects the island's present-day community to that of its Old Norse/Viking settlers from Scandinavia. This sense of Viking ethnicity, however, is relatively recent, first arising in the 19th Century. This paper argues that Shetland's cultural identity must be understood in terms of the islands' historical interconnectedness with trends in literature and scholarship in mainland Scotland, Britain, and Europe as a whole. Part II of this two-part paper looks at how the rise of nationalism and philological research into race and ethnicity in the 1800s both drew upon and contributed to Shetlanders' understanding of their history and culture. In the 1890s, Edinburgh scholar David MacRitchie promoted a theory to explain European and Asian fairy folklore. This theory was grounded in the history of Orkney and Shetland and eventually made a significant impact in Shetland itself, being used by the author Jessie Saxby to promote a distinctive local identity concept. MacRitchie's work also contributed to later research connected to the development of neopaganism and racist Nazi ideology. The conclusion concerns the role of isolated island communities within flows of cultural development and exchange. © 2013.


Grydehoj A.,Island Dynamics
Journal of Marine and Island Cultures | Year: 2013

The population of the North Sea archipelago of Shetland, UK possesses a distinct sense of ethnic identity, which connects the island's present-day community to that of its Old Norse/Viking settlers from Scandinavia. This sense of Viking ethnicity, however, is relatively recent, first arising in the 19th Century. This paper argues that Shetland's cultural identity must be understood in terms of the islands' historical interconnectedness with trends in literature and scholarship in mainland Scotland, Britain, and Europe as a whole. Part I of this two-part paper looks at how works of literature and international academic research into folklore, racial anthropology, archaeology, and philology influenced and were influenced by the Shetland community's conceptions of its own history. Over the course of the 19th Century, a sense of ethnic uniqueness and identification with the Vikings gradually developed in Shetland, linked to ideas concerning Shetland's past inhabitants (Picts and Vikings), past folk belief (Finns, mermaids, and fairies), and the increasing prominence of research into Aryan/Indo-European ethnicity. Despite its geographic isolation, the history of ideas within Shetland is fundamentally one of interchange with the wider world. © 2013.


A local government can use innovative governance practices to expand its jurisdictional capacity, thereby promoting local economic development. There are, however, legal and institutional impediments to the exercise of such innovative economic development policy. Using the subnational jurisdiction of Shetland as a case study, this paper considers how local government innovation can be a key driver of economic development. Local government innovation can nevertheless become subject to legal challenges by authorities in the higher-level jurisdictions (Scotland, the United Kingdom, and the European Union in the case of Shetland). Community concerns related to standards of good governance can compound these difficulties, resulting in a significant decrease in democratic accountability and a weakening of the local government's de facto capacity to plan and implement policy. Before local governments can make the most of multilevel governance, local communities and high-lever jurisdictions must re-assess standards of legitimacy for local government functions and structures.

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