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Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Rahman M.Y.A.,National University of Malaysia | Ahmad A.,National University of Malaysia | Umar A.A.,National University of Malaysia | Taslim R.,Islamic University of Riau | And 2 more authors.
Ionics | Year: 2014

This paper reviews the use of solid polymeric electrolyte (SPE) and gel polymeric electrolyte (GPE) in photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The structure of PEC and its working principle are presented. The various types of polymer electrolytes utilized in PEC and DSSC have been highlighted in this review. It also highlights the comparison of performance of PEC and DSSC utilizing those polymer electrolytes. This review is completed with the list of other SPEs that potentially be tested in DSSC. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Sulaiman A.,Islamic University of Riau | Sulaiman A.,National University of Malaysia | Razman M.R.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

Basel Convention 1989 on the control of hazardous wastes has incorporated the precautionary principle. The precautionary principle plays an important role in the area of international environmental law and governance. The use of the precautionary principle in the area of international environmental law and governance is largely in respond to the inevitability of every human being around the globe to protect environment from being polluted in their surroundings. As the Basel Convention is concerned, the Convention created an essential mechanism to protect environment from negative effects of hazardous wastes globally. Therefore, this article examines the use of the precautionary principle in the Basel Convention 1989 with relation to the international environmental law and governance by identifying actions and cases which deal with environmental protection. This article is also identifying the relation between the Basel Convention 1989 which applied the precautionary principle and Rio Declaration as a means to protect Mother Nature. Source


Purnamirza T.,University of Technology Malaysia | Purnamirza T.,Islamic University of Riau | Rahman T.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Jamaluddin M.H.,University of Technology Malaysia
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications | Year: 2012

This paper proposes the utilization of extreme beamsquint technique to minimize the reflection coefficient of very small aperture radial line slot array (VSA-RLSA) antennas when the normal beamsquint technique is no longer able to do so. This technique utilizes very high beamsquint in order to obtain multiple rings on the radiating element of VSA-RLSA antennas, thus minimizes the reflection coefficient and improves the efficiency of VSA-RLSA antennas. The theoretical analysis on the generation procedure of signal reflections in the VSA-RLSA antennas, as well as the operational function of how extreme beamsquint technique can minimize the signal reflections, is explained. Various extreme beamsquint VSA-RLSA antennas and normal beamsquint VSA-RLSA antennas with radius of 75mm are designed, simulated and fabricated. The good agreement between simulation and measurement results shows that the extreme beamsquint VSA-RLSA antennas have much lower reflection coefficient response and higher efficiency than the normal beamsquint VSA-RLSA antennas. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source


Paman U.,Islamic University of Riau | Inaba S.,Saga University | Uchida S.,Saga University
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2016

Farm machinery hire services have become important business groups within a small farming community in Kampar Regency, Indonesia. This research evaluated the economic aspects of the machinery hire services managed by farmer groups with a focus on cost, revenue, profitability, and economic efficiency. A total of 20 machinery hire service groups located in seven districts of the region were purposely selected. Group managers and custom operators were interviewed to collect field data during the rainy (growing) season in 2012/2013. The results showed that the seasonal total work varied across hire service groups and depended on the number and type of machines owned. Seasonal costs among custom operators varied considerably. Depreciation and labor were the dominant fixed and variable costs, respectively. Although having a relatively low profit, the machinery hire service groups were profitable and efficient businesses under current levels of custom rates. The low seasonal total work, due to limited number and type of machines and short seasonal working time, is an important constraint on increasing profitability. Therefore, there is an opportunity to make the hire service groups more profitable and viable businesses by adding several different types of machines. © 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Source


Emrizal,Islamic University of Riau | Emrizal,National University of Malaysia | Razman M.R.,National University of Malaysia | Jahi J.M.,National University of Malaysia
Research Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2011

Criminal law plays an essential role in human habitat and environment protection. The used of the criminal law in human habitat and environmental protection is largely in respond to the inevitability of every human to protect human habitat and environment from being polluted in their surrounding and habitat. Therefore this study examines the used of the criminal law with relation to the human habitat and environmental protection from the national law approach by identifying actions and cases which deal with human habitat and environmental protection. This study is also identifying the relation between the criminal law and the concept of sustainability as a means to protect human habitat and environment. © Medwell Journals, 2011. Source

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