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Mbale, Uganda

The Islamic University in Uganda , is a multi-campus university offering courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The main campus of the university is located in Mbale, Uganda, about 222 kilometres northeast of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. Wikipedia.

Babu M.A.,Islamic University in Uganda | Hes E.M.A.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | van der Steen N.P.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Hooijmans C.M.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Gijzen H.J.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate nitrification rates in algal-bacterial biofilms of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) under different conditions of light, oxygen and pH. Biofilms were grown on wooden plates of 6.0cm by 8.0cm by 0.4cm in a PVC tray continuously fed with synthetic wastewater with initial NH4-N and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 40mgl-1 and 100mgl-1, respectively, under light intensity of 85-95μEm-2s-1. Batch activity tests were carried out by exposure of the plates to light conditions as above (to simulate day time), dim light of 1.8-2.2μEm-2s-1 (to simulate reduced light as in deeper locations in WSP) and dark conditions (to simulate night time). Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH were controlled. At some experiments, both parameters were kept constant, and at others they were left to vary as in WSP. Results show biofilm nitrification rates of 945-1817mg-Nm-2d-1 and 1124-1615mg-Nm-2d-1 for light and dark experiments. When the minimum DO was 4.1mgl-1, the biofilm nitrification rates under light and dark conditions did not differ significantly at 95% confidence. When the minimum DO in the dim light experiment was 3.2mgl-1, the nitrification rates under light and dim light conditions were 945mg-Nm-2d-1 and 563mg-Nm-2d-1 and these significantly differed. Further decrease of DO to 1.1mgl-1 under dark conditions resulted in more decrease of the nitrification rates to 156mg-Nm-2d-1. It therefore seems that under these experimental conditions, biofilm nitrification rates are significantly reduced at a certain point when bulk water DO is between 3.2mgl-1 and 4.1mgl-1. As long as bulk water DO under dark is high, light is not important in influencing the process of nitrification. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Mwasa A.,Islamic University in Uganda | Tchuenche J.M.,University of Dar es Salaam
BioSystems | Year: 2011

Cholera, an acute gastro-intestinal infection and a waterborne disease continues to emerge in developing countries and remains an important global health challenge. We formulate a mathematical model that captures some essential dynamics of cholera transmission to study the impact of public health educational campaigns, vaccination and treatment as control strategies in curtailing the disease. The education-induced, vaccination-induced and treatment-induced reproductive numbers RE, RV, RT respectively and the combined reproductive number RC are compared with the basic reproduction number R0 to assess the possible community benefits of these control measures. A Lyapunov functional approach is also used to analyse the stability of the equilibrium points. We perform sensitivity analysis on the key parameters that drive the disease dynamics in order to determine their relative importance to disease transmission and prevalence. Graphical representations are provided to qualitatively support the analytical results. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Ghanem M.A.,King Saud University | Al-Mayouf A.M.,King Saud University | Arunachalam P.,King Saud University | Abiti T.,King Saud University | Abiti T.,Islamic University in Uganda
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2016

Active, stable and economical electro-catalysts are very necessary for hydrogen production through water splitting by electrolysis. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of highly porous cobalt hydroxide (meso-Co-OH) formed by a simple chemical precipitation within the interstitial space of liquid crystal template. The physicochemical properties of the meso-Co-OH were characterized by surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction, XPS, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The meso-Co-OH exhibits low crystallinity and high surface area of 457 ± 5 m2/g with a mesoporous structure and pore diameter of 4.0 ± 1.0 nm. As confirmed by the electrochemical characterizations, the meso-Co-OH is highly effective electro-catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at low applied potential and shows superior activity and stability than iridium oxide during long term water electrolysis in alkaline media. The meso-Co-OH shows oxygen evolution current and onset potential comparable to the IrO2 catalyst and the current is enhanced by 10 times than the values of bulk cobalt hydroxide electrode. For meso-Co-OH catalyst the oxygen evolution overpotential of 1.55 V (vs. RHE) at current density of 25 mA cm2 has been achieved in 1.0 M KOH. The enhanced OER activity was attributed to the substantial increase in the active catalyst surface area due to the formation of mesoporous network within the cobalt hydroxide framework. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Babu M.A.,Islamic University in Uganda | van der Steen N.P.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Hooijmans C.M.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Gijzen H.J.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Nitrogen removal in biofilm waste stabilization ponds were modeled using nitrogen mass balance equations. Four pilot-scale biofilm maturation ponds were constructed in Uganda. Pond 1 was control; the others had 15 baffles in each of them. Two loading conditions were investigated (period 1, 18.2g and period 2, 26.8gNH4-Nd-1). Total nitrogen and TKN mass balances were made. Bulk water and biofilm nitrification rates were determined and used in the TKN mass balance. Results for total nitrogen mass balance showed that for both periods, denitrification was the major removal mechanism. Nitrogen uptake by algae was more important during period 1 than in period 2. The TKN mass balance predicted well effluent TKN for period 2 than period 1. This could be due to fluctuations in algae density and ammonia uptake during period 1, no conclusions on reliability of mass balance model in period 1 was made. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Reeder D.M.,Bucknell University | Helgen K.M.,Smithsonian Institution | Vodzak M.E.,Bucknell University | Lunde D.P.,Smithsonian Institution | Ejotre I.,Islamic University in Uganda
ZooKeys | Year: 2013

A new genus is proposed for the strikingly patterned African vespertilionid "Glauconycteris" superba Hayman, 1939 on the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons. A review of the attributes of a newly collected specimen from South Sudan (a new country record) and other museum specimens of "G." superba suggests that "G." superba is markedly distinct ecomorphologically from other species classified in Glauconycteris and is likely the sister taxon to Glauconycteris sensu stricto. The recent capture of this rarely collected but widespread bat highlights the need for continued research in tropical sub-Saharan Africa and in particular, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country records for G. cf. poensis (South Sudan) and G. curryae (Gabon) are also reported. © DeeAnn M. Reeder et al.

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