Islamic University in Uganda

www.iuiu.ac.ug/
Mbale, Uganda

The Islamic University in Uganda , is a multi-campus university offering courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The main campus of the university is located in Mbale, Uganda, about 222 kilometres northeast of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. Wikipedia.

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Bello I.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Shehu M.W.,Islamic University in Uganda | Zaini Asmawi M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mahmud R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ethnopharmacological relevance Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care. Aim of the review The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant. Method The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books. Results Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market. Conclusions The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Lwanira C.N.,Makerere University | Kironde F.,Islamic University in Uganda | Kaddumukasa M.,Makerere University | Swedberg G.,Uppsala University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2017

Background: Host genetics play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility. However, information on host genetic factors and their relationships with malaria in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected host genetic markers and their relationship to malaria incidence in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda. In a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, 423 children aged below 9 years were recruited and their malaria episodes were investigated. Host genetic polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP, haemoglobin electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Using a multivariate negative binomial regression model, estimates of the impact of human genetic polymorphisms on malaria incidence were performed. In all statistical tests, a P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The prevalences of sickle cell haemoglobin trait, G6PD c.202 G>A (rs 1050828) and NOS2 -954 G>C (rs 1800482) variants were 26.6, 22.7 and 17.3%, respectively. Inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2 -954 G>C; rs 1800482) heterozygosity was associated with lower incidence of malaria in all age groups {Adjusted incident rates ratio (aIRR) 0.59; 95% CI [0.386-0.887]; P = 0.012)}. About 4% of study subjects had co-existence of sickle cell Hb trait and G6PD deficiency. Sickle cell Hb heterozygotes (Hb AS) aged less than 1 year experienced significantly more malaria episodes annually than children with normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) {aIRR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.240-3.175]; P = 0.004}. There was no significant influence of the sickle cell trait on malaria incidence among older children of 1-9 years. Conclusions: Mutation (NOS2 -954 G>C; rs 1800482) of nitric oxide synthase 2 gene promoter was associated with a lower incidence of acute malaria. The normal haemoglobin (wild genotype; HbAA) was associated with reduced malaria incidence rates during the first year of life. More understanding of the interplay between host genetics and malaria susceptibility is required. © 2017 The Author(s).


Kassam R.,University of British Columbia | Sekiwunga R.,Makerere University | Collins J.B.,University of British Columbia | Tembe J.,Islamic University in Uganda | Liow E.,University of British Columbia
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: This study responds to a rural community's concern that, despite national initiatives, malaria management in young children falls short of national guidelines in their district. This study aimed to: (1) describe caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviors in the rural district of Butaleja, (2) estimate the percentage of children who received an appropriate antimalarial, and (3) determine factors that maximized the likelihood of receiving an appropriate antimalarial. Appropriate antimalarial in this study is defined as having received only the Uganda's age-specific first-line malaria treatment for uncomplicated and severe malaria during the course of the febrile illness. Methods: A household survey design was used in 2011 to interview 424 caregivers with a child aged five and under who had fever within the two weeks preceding the survey. The survey evaluated factors that included: knowledge about malaria and its treatment, management practices, decision-making, and access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and information sources. Bivariate analysis, followed by logistic regression, was used to determine predictors of the likelihood of receiving an appropriate antimalarial. Results: Home management was the most common first action, with most children requiring a subsequent action to manage their fever. Overall, 20.9 % of children received a blood test, 68.4 % received an antimalarial, and 41.0 % received an ACT. But closer inspection showed that only 31.6 % received an appropriate antimalarial. These results confirm that ACT usage and receipt of an appropriate antimalarial in Butaleja remain well below the 2010/2015 target of 85 %. While nine survey items differentiated significantly whether a child had or had not received an appropriate antimalarial, our logistic regression model identified four items as independent predictors of likelihood that a child would receive an appropriate antimalarial: obtaining antimalarials from regulated outlets (OR=14.99); keeping ACT in the home for future use (OR=6.36); reporting they would select ACT given the choice (OR=2.31); and child's age older than four months (OR=5.67). Conclusions: Few children in Butaleja received malaria treatment in accordance with national guidelines. This study highlighted the importance of engaging the full spectrum of stakeholders in the management of malaria in young children - including licensed and unlicensed providers, caregivers, and family members. © 2016 The Author(s).


Babu M.A.,Islamic University in Uganda | Hes E.M.A.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | van der Steen N.P.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Hooijmans C.M.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Gijzen H.J.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate nitrification rates in algal-bacterial biofilms of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) under different conditions of light, oxygen and pH. Biofilms were grown on wooden plates of 6.0cm by 8.0cm by 0.4cm in a PVC tray continuously fed with synthetic wastewater with initial NH4-N and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 40mgl-1 and 100mgl-1, respectively, under light intensity of 85-95μEm-2s-1. Batch activity tests were carried out by exposure of the plates to light conditions as above (to simulate day time), dim light of 1.8-2.2μEm-2s-1 (to simulate reduced light as in deeper locations in WSP) and dark conditions (to simulate night time). Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH were controlled. At some experiments, both parameters were kept constant, and at others they were left to vary as in WSP. Results show biofilm nitrification rates of 945-1817mg-Nm-2d-1 and 1124-1615mg-Nm-2d-1 for light and dark experiments. When the minimum DO was 4.1mgl-1, the biofilm nitrification rates under light and dark conditions did not differ significantly at 95% confidence. When the minimum DO in the dim light experiment was 3.2mgl-1, the nitrification rates under light and dim light conditions were 945mg-Nm-2d-1 and 563mg-Nm-2d-1 and these significantly differed. Further decrease of DO to 1.1mgl-1 under dark conditions resulted in more decrease of the nitrification rates to 156mg-Nm-2d-1. It therefore seems that under these experimental conditions, biofilm nitrification rates are significantly reduced at a certain point when bulk water DO is between 3.2mgl-1 and 4.1mgl-1. As long as bulk water DO under dark is high, light is not important in influencing the process of nitrification. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Mwasa A.,Islamic University in Uganda | Tchuenche J.M.,University of Dar es Salaam
BioSystems | Year: 2011

Cholera, an acute gastro-intestinal infection and a waterborne disease continues to emerge in developing countries and remains an important global health challenge. We formulate a mathematical model that captures some essential dynamics of cholera transmission to study the impact of public health educational campaigns, vaccination and treatment as control strategies in curtailing the disease. The education-induced, vaccination-induced and treatment-induced reproductive numbers RE, RV, RT respectively and the combined reproductive number RC are compared with the basic reproduction number R0 to assess the possible community benefits of these control measures. A Lyapunov functional approach is also used to analyse the stability of the equilibrium points. We perform sensitivity analysis on the key parameters that drive the disease dynamics in order to determine their relative importance to disease transmission and prevalence. Graphical representations are provided to qualitatively support the analytical results. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Babu M.A.,Islamic University in Uganda | van der Steen N.P.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Hooijmans C.M.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Gijzen H.J.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Nitrogen removal in biofilm waste stabilization ponds were modeled using nitrogen mass balance equations. Four pilot-scale biofilm maturation ponds were constructed in Uganda. Pond 1 was control; the others had 15 baffles in each of them. Two loading conditions were investigated (period 1, 18.2g and period 2, 26.8gNH4-Nd-1). Total nitrogen and TKN mass balances were made. Bulk water and biofilm nitrification rates were determined and used in the TKN mass balance. Results for total nitrogen mass balance showed that for both periods, denitrification was the major removal mechanism. Nitrogen uptake by algae was more important during period 1 than in period 2. The TKN mass balance predicted well effluent TKN for period 2 than period 1. This could be due to fluctuations in algae density and ammonia uptake during period 1, no conclusions on reliability of mass balance model in period 1 was made. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Alli A.A.,Islamic University in Uganda
2011 5th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies, AICT 2011 | Year: 2011

Uganda is one of the countries south of the Sahara that has smart system of administration based on decentralization. It has been declared that this decentralisation system is very efficient in service delivery, because it provides opportunities for the masses to get involved in governing themselves at lower levels of the community they live in. © 2011 IEEE.


Olurotimi O.J.,Islamic University in Uganda | Kemi O.B.,Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti
International Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2015

The study investigated the psycho-physiological coherence of breastfeeding among women in South West Nigeria. The research design used was the descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for the study was made up of women with breastfeeding experience. The sample consisted of 1,385 women selected from three states in South West Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used. The research instrument used was titled Psycho-Physiological Coherence of Breastfeeding among Women Questionnaire (PPCBWQ). The instrument was valid and reliable; it was construct validated and a split half reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The reason behind this study was to expose mothers to the realistic expectations of their physique or bodily changes to support the decision to breastfeed and avoid unnecessary supplementation. From literature, it was observed that despite exclusive breastfeeding being the optimal way of feeding an infant, the percentage of mothers who exclusively breastfed drop from over 75% who initiate to <11% at 6 months, well short of the Healthy People 2010 initiative goal of 50% of infants being exclusively breastfed for 6 months. The result of the finding clearly shows that more of the breastfeeding activities took place during the night compared to day time as frequency of breastfeeding increased in the night. This is so because mothers do work during the day. It was also discovered that 725 out of 736 respondents who had knowledge of psycho physiological coherence breastfeed their babies until satisfaction level is reached. © Medwell Journals, 2015.


Nakyinsige K.,University Putra Malaysia | Nakyinsige K.,Islamic University in Uganda | Man Y.B.C.,University Putra Malaysia | Sazili A.Q.,University Putra Malaysia
Meat Science | Year: 2012

In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Sserwadda B.,Islamic University in Uganda
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2011

The study sought to determine the levels of disaster preparedness under decentralization among selected districts in Uganda. The districts targeted were 17 and the respondents were district disaster management personnel, in the office of the Chief Administrative Officer, local council members who are the legislators, district disaster management committees and representatives from the community. The results indicated that there is poor capacity on the part of staff in understanding the key standards that relate to disaster responsiveness. The personnel holding these portfolios are not well trained to handle emergency response. 89% of the districts covered had no facilities to evacuate the vulnerable in case of a disaster. However, planning is done at district level and this creates plans for emergencies that have localized dimensions. Resource utilization for disaster preparedness activities can be incorporated in the other plans using locally generated resources. The efforts to build the capacity of the district personnel as well as that of the community to understand the dynamics of disaster management should be done. In conclusion therefore, it should be noted that it is a human right for vulnerable and resource constrained communities and populations to be protected against problems brought about by disasters. By looking at the challenges associated with managing disasters, and by studying the opportunities presented by the decentralization system in Uganda, better options could be generated to establish a more sustainable mechanism to reduce the losses associated with disasters both in terms of human and other resources. © 2011 WIT Press.

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