Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical
Tehran, Iran
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Kashi G.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2017

Discharge of refinery effluents containing phenanthrene (Phe) may exert carcinogenic effects on aquatic organisms. The aim of the current investigation was to investigate electrochemical removal of Phe from urban drinking water using a batch reactor. Phe removal efficiency was examined under different operating conditions including current density (1–8 mA/cm2), electrode composition materials such as aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), steel (AS), or zinc (Zn), pH (4–10), and duration (20–60 min). Phe concentration was determined utilizing standard techniques. Steel–Steel (AS–AS) as anode–cathode electrodes resulted in the least Phe removal (not detected), while Zn–Cu anode–cathode electrodes produced the highest Phe removal (100%) under similar experimental conditions. The increase in current density from 1 to 8 mA/cm2 at optimum electrode and pH enhanced Phe removal from 56% to 100%. The rise in duration from 20 to 60 min at optimum electrode and pH increased Phe removal from 32% to 100%. These findings indicated that Phe removal efficiency was elevated with increasing current density, electrolysis time, and pH. Batch experiments indicated that the electrochemical reactor might be effective in removing Phe from drinking water. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Zare N.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Khalifeh S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Khodagholi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Shahamati S.Z.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Neurodegenerative disorders are generally characterized by abnormal aggregation and deposition of specific proteins. Amyloid beta (Aβ)-associated neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by an oxidative damage that, in turn, leads to some behavioral changes before the establishment of dementia such as depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) administration 24 h before Aβ injection. In our experiment, 7 days after Aβ injection, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test were conducted to assess anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Levels of autophagy markers and malondialdehyde (MDA) and also activity of catalase in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated. Our behavioral analyses demonstrated that GA pretreatment can significantly decrease anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in Aβ-injected rats. Also, levels of autophagy markers including Atg12, Atg7, and LC3-II increased, while MDA level decreased and the activity of catalase increased in rats pretreated with GA compared to Aβ-injected rats. Thus, we assumed that GA, at least in part, ameliorated Aβ-mediated anxiety and depression by inducing autophagy and improving antioxidant defense system. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Sadeghi E.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical
Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal | Year: 2015

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death in women with 40-44 years old. The facts and evidence show steadily increasing incidence of breast cancer in the mid-1940s. That's why we conducted this study to evaluate the survival rate of patients, positive estrogen receptor in breast cancer patients treatedover the last 10 years in Shohada Hospital in Tajrish, Tehranhave been selected as a case study. In this study, the data were collected using a descriptive-analytical method and using the SPSS software, we came to the conclusion thatthere is no significant relationship between survival and condition of patients after treatment of patients with menopausal statusas well as the type of treatment with the patients' survival rate. If a significant relationship has been observed between the patients after treatment, it means that the disease has been diagnosed with stage. The results of ANOVA test also show that there is a significant correlation between the diagnosis of observed disease age and survival of patients.

Farahmandfar M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Akbarabadi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Akbarabadi A.,Islamic Azad University at Garmsar | Bakhtazad A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2017

Ketamine and other noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to induce deficits in learning and cognitive performance sensitive to prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. The interaction of a glutamatergic and GABAergic systems is essential for many cognitive behaviors. In order to understand the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of GABAergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training systemic administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC injection of muscimol, GABAA receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 μg/mouse) and baclofen GABAB receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), impaired memory acquisition. However, co-pretreatment of different doses of muscimol and baclofen with a lower dose of ketamine (5 mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. Our data showed that sole pre-training administration of bicuculline, GABA-A receptor antagonist and phaclofen GABA-B receptor antagonist into the mPFC, did not affect memory acquisition. In addition, the amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15 mg/kg) was significantly decreased by the pretreatment of bicuculline (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mouse). It can be concluded that GABAergic system of the mPFC is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition. © 2016 IBRO

Afsharfard A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mozaffar M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Orang E.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Tahmasbpour E.,Islamic Azad University at Sari
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background:Breast cancer (BC) is the top cancer among women worldwide and the most frequent malignancy among Iranian women over the past few decades. The increasing trend and high mortality rate of BC in the developing world necessitates studies concentrating on its characteristics in countries in Asia. The current study focused on clinical and histopathological features of BC among Iranian females. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved 714 Iranian patients with histopathologically proven BC undergoing resection of primary tumours and axillary clearance. Demographic, clinical and histopathological data were obtained and studied between ten year age groups (=40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years, 61-70 years, and =71 years) in four chronologic phases from 1994-2009. Results: Mean age of patients was 49.4±13.1 years. Most of cases (33.2%) were in 41-50 group. Mean size of primary tumors was 3.94±2.47 cm and 87.1% of cases had infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Modified radical mastectomy was the most common method of surgery carried out (48.8%). Some 57.1% of tumors were in pT2 and tumor size decreased significantly during the period (p<0.05). The most common BC stage was llla (27%). Lower BC stages (0 and 1) constituted 13.9% of the diagnosed tumors. Our series of patients aged =40 had larger tumors (mean 4.73±3.02 cm) compared to older age groups (p=0.003). Lower stages (0 and I) were more frequent among the oldest patients while nearly 50% of patients aged =40 had tumor stage III. We also observed a significant decreasing trend in the mean LN count (p<0.05) and blood vessel invasion (p=0.023) from younger to older age groups. Conclusions: More aggressive disease for younger age groups, earlier peak incidence age and high rate of advanced BC at the time of diagnosis among Iranian women, were the main findings of this study.

Hashemi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Pooladi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Abad S.K.R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Objective: Angiogenesis performs a critical role in the development of cancer. Angiogenesis research is a cutting-edge field in cancer research. Proteomics is a powerful tool in identifying multiple proteins that are altered following a neuropharacological intervention in a disease of the central nervous system. Diagnostic oncoproteomics is the application of proteomic techniques for the diagnosis of malignancies. Materials and Methods: We extracted proteins of tumor and normal brain tissues and then evaluated the protein purity by Bradford test and spectrophotometery method. In this study, we separated proteins by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis method and the spots were then analyzed and compared using statistical data and specific software, after providing three-dimensional images of spots alteration. Spots were identified by pH isoelectric, molecular weights, and data banks. Results: Simple statistical test were used to establish a putative hierarchy in which the change in protein level were ranked according a cutoff point with P < 0.05. Apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1) protein and albumin were consistently upregulated in astrocytoma brain tumors. Conclusion: The vascular microenvironment of glioma play a major role in determining the pathophysiological character is tics of the tumor. apo A1 and albumin are very significant due to their functional consequences in glioma tumor growth, migration and angiogenesis.

Nasehi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Amin-Yavari S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ebrahimi-Ghiri M.,University of Zanjan | Torabi-Nami M.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2015

It is well documented that cannabinoids play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes in rodents. On the other hand, N-Methyl-. d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate the synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory processes which take place in the hippocampus. Such insights prompted us to investigate the influence of dorsal hippocampal (CA1) NMDA receptor agents on amnesia induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) in male mice. One-trial step-down passive avoidance and hole-board apparatuses were used to examine the memory retrieval and exploratory behaviors, respectively. Based on our findings, pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.01. mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of NMDA (0.001, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.2. μg/mouse), d-AP7 (0.5 and 1. μg/mouse) or AM251 (50. ng/mouse) impaired the memory acquisition. Meanwhile, NMDA-treated animals at the doses of 0.0005, 0.05 and 0.1. μg/mouse acquired memory formation. In addition, intra-CA1 microinjection of NMDA (0.0005) plus different doses of ACPA potentiated the ACPA response, while NMDA (0.1) plus the lower or the higher dose of ACPA potentiated or restored the ACPA response, respectively. Further investigation revealed that a subthreshold dose of d-AP7 could potentiate the memory acquisition impairment induced by ACPA. Moreover, the subthreshold dose of AM251 did not alter the ACPA response, while the effective dose of the drug restored the memory acquisition impairment induced by ACPA. According to these results, we concluded that activation of the NMDA receptors in the CA1 mediates a dual effect on ACPA-induced amnesia in step-down passive avoidance learning task. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

Mohammadi M.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies ICSS | Nasehi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Zarrindast M.-R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies ICSS | Zarrindast M.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.-R.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2015

Aim: The amygdala is a major target of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and is implicated in learning and memory processes. This study investigates the effect of basolateral amygdale (BLA) dopamine receptors on spatial and non-spatial novelty detection deficit, induced by a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist (Arachidonylcyclopropylamide; ACPA), during a non-associative task. Methods: Male mice weighing 30-35. g were used. Open field procedure was employed to assess the spatial and non-spatial memory retention. Results: Our data showed that post-training intraperitoneal injection of ACPA (0.02. mg/kg), intra-BLA microinjection of SKF38393 (D1 dopamine receptor agonist; at higher dose, 0.1. μg/mouse) and SCH23390 (D1 dopamine receptor antagonist; at lowest dose, 0.005. μg/mouse) impaired both spatial and non-spatial novelty detection. Moreover, intra-BLA microinjection of subthreshold dose of SKF38393 or SCH23390 restored and potentiated the spatial and non-spatial novelty detection impairment caused by ACPA, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the ACPA induced impairment of memory retention, may occur through BLA D1 dopamine receptors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Orang E.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Marzony E.T.,Islamic Azad University at Sari | Afsharfard A.,University of Tehran
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) in patients with invasive lesions, to find the best candidates for a full axillary dissection. Additionally, we evaluated the association between tumor size and invasive behavior. The study was based on data from 789 patients with histopathologically proven invasive breast cancer diagnosed in Shohada University hospital in Tehran, Iran (1993-2009). Cinical and histopathological characteristics of tumors were collected. Patients were divided into 6 groups according to primary tumor size: group I (0.1-≤1cm), II (1.1-≤2cm), III (2.1-≤3cm), IV (3.1-≤4cm), V (4.1-≤5cm) and VI (>5cm). The mean(±SD) size of primary tumor at the time of diagnosis was 3.59±2.69 cm that gradually declined during the course of study. There was a significant correlation between tumor size and ALNI (p<0.001). A significant positive correlation between primary tumor size and involvement of surrounding tissue was also found (p<0.001). The mean number of LNI in group VI was significantly higher than other groups (p<0.05).We observed more involvement of lymph nodes, blood vessels, skin and areola-nipple tissue with increase in tumor size.We found 15.3% overall incidence of ALNI in tumors ≤2 cm, indicating the need for more investigation to omit full axillary lymph node dissection with an acceptable risk for tumors below this diameter. While in patients with tumors ≥2 cm, 84.3% of them had nodal metastases, so the best management for this group would be a full ALND. Tumor size is a significant predictor of ALNM and involvement of surrounding tissue, so that an exact estimation of the size of primary tumor is necessary prior to surgery to make the best decision for management of patients with invasive breast cancer.

Darvish H.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Ardestani B.M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Shali S.M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran Medical | Tajik A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: One of the most important complications in cesarean surgery is postoperative pain, and different ways have been proposed to control it. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Diclofenac and Paracetamol combination in comparison with Meperidine on postoperative pain after cesarean surgery. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty women candidates for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia categorized as ASA class I were selected and randomly assigned to receive either Diclofenac suppository at the end of the operation and thereafter 1 gram infused bolus of Paracetamol (group A), or 20 mg bolus of Meperidine after transition to recovery room (group B) to control postoperative pain. Results: Postoperative pain was present in recovery in 38.3% and 23.3% in groups B and A, respectively (P = 0.009). Postoperative pain was seen after six hours of operation in 38.7% and 16.7% in groups B and A, respectively (P = 0.010). Postoperative pain was present after 12 hours of operation in 38.3% and 15% in groups B and A, respectively (P = 0.002). The additive Meperidine use was the same between the two groups in recovery (P > 0.05). The additive Meperidine use was seen after six hours of operation in 26.7% and 6.7% in groups B and A, respectively (P = 0.013). The additive Meperidine use was seen after 12 hours of operation in 16.7% and none of the patients in groups B and A, respectively (P = 0.004). The frequency of drug adverse effects was the same between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results it may be concluded that Paracetamol and Diclofenac combination would have a better efficacy in postoperative pain control and need reduction to additive analgesia compared to Meperidine. © 2014, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM).

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