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Kefayati G.R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics | Year: 2013

In this paper, the effects of a magnetic field on natural convection flow in filled long enclosures with Cu/water nanofluid have been analyzed by lattice Boltzmann method. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: the Rayleigh number of base fluid, Ra = 10 3-105, the volumetric fraction of nanoparticles between 0 and 6 %, the aspect ratio of the enclosure between A = 0.5 and 2. The Hartmann number has been varied from Ha = 0 to 90 with interval 30 while the magnetic field is considered at inclination angles of θ = 0, 30, 60 and 90. Results show that the heat transfer decreases by the increment of Hartmann number for various Rayleigh numbers and the aspect ratios. Heat transfer decreases with the growth of the aspect ratio but this growth causes the effect of the nanoparticles to increase. The magnetic field augments the effect of the nanoparticles at high Rayleigh numbers (Ra = 105). The effect of the nanoparticles rises for high Hartmann numbers when the aspect ratio increases. The rise in the magnetic field inclination improves heat transfer at aspect ratio of A = 0.5. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Pedram P.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

In this Letter, we consider the effects of the Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP) on the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the Dirac equation. This form of GUP is consistent with various candidates of quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, doubly special relativity and black hole physics and predicts both a minimum measurable length and a maximum measurable momentum. The modified Hamiltonian contains two additional terms proportional to a(α→p)2 and a2(α→ .p)3 where αi are Dirac matrices and ã1/MPlc is the GUP parameter. For the case of the Dirac free particle and the Dirac particle in a box, we solve the generalized Dirac equation and find the modified energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Vakili B.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We study the evolution of a three-dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model, a scalar field with potential function V(ϕ) with which the gravity part of the action is minimally coupled and a vector field of its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function f(ϕ). Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the coupling function between the scalar and the vector fields and also the scalar field potential function for which such symmetry exists. Finally, by means of the corresponding Noether current, we integrate the equations of motion and obtain exact solutions for the scale factor, scalar and vector fields. It is shown that the resulting cosmology is an accelerated expansion universe for which its expansion is due to the presence of the vector field in the early times, while the scalar field is responsible of its late time expansion. © 2014 The Author. Source


Pedram P.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The existence of a minimal measurable length is a common feature of various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, and black-hole physics. In this scenario, all commutation relations are modified and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is changed to the so-called Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP). Here, we present a one-dimensional nonperturbative approach to quantum mechanics with minimal length uncertainty relation which implies X=x to all orders and P=p+13βp3 to first order of GUP parameter β, where X and P are the generalized position and momentum operators and [x,p]=i. We show that this formalism is an equivalent representation of the seminal proposal by Kempf, Mangano, and Mann and predicts the same physics. However, this proposal reveals many significant aspects of the generalized uncertainty principle in a simple and comprehensive form and the existence of a maximal canonical momentum is manifest through this representation. The problems of the free particle and the harmonic oscillator are exactly solved in this GUP framework and the effects of GUP on the thermodynamics of these systems are also presented. Although X, P, and the Hamiltonian of the harmonic oscillator all are formally self-adjoint, the careful study of the domains of these operators shows that only the momentum operator remains self-adjoint in the presence of the minimal length uncertainty. We finally discuss the difficulties with the definition of potentials with infinitely sharp boundaries. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Soroudi A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2012

The distribution network operators (DNOs) are responsible for securing a diverse and viable energy supply for their customers so the technical and economical impacts of distributed generation (DG) units are of great concerns. Traditionally, the DNOs try to maximize the technical performance of the distribution network, but it is evident that the first step in optimizing a quantity is being able to calculate it. The DG investment/operation which is performed by distributed generation operators/owners (DGOs) (under unbundling rules) has made this task more complicated. This is mainly because the DNO is faced with the uncertainties related to the decisions of DG investors/operators where some of them can be probabilistically modeled while the others are possibilistically treated. This paper proposes a hybrid possibilistic- probabilistic DG impact assessment tool which takes into account the uncertainties associated with investment and operation of renewable and conventional DG units on distribution networks. This tool would be useful for DNOs to deal with the uncertainties which some of them can be modeled probabilistically and some of them are described possibilistically. The proposed method has been tested on a test system and a large-scale real distribution network to demonstrate its strength and flexibility. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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