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Ghiasi Ghalehkandi J.,Islamic Azad University at Shabestar
Animal Reproduction | Year: 2014

Semen oxidation is one of the major testimonies of infertility. The aim of present study was to examine the effects of fresh garlic juice on semen malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS) compared with chromium chloride (CrCl3) in male rats. A hundred and sixty-two male rats were allocated into 9 treatment groups. Group 1 served as control. In group 2, rats gavage 60 mg/kg garlic juice. In group 3, rats were offered 120 mg/kg garlic juice. Group 4 drenched 4 mg/kg CrCl3. In group 5, 8 mg/kg CrCl3 was offered to rats. Group 6 was treated with 60 mg/kg garlic juice + 4 mg/kg CrCl3. Group 7 gavage 60 mg/kg garlic juice + 8 mg/kg CrCl3. Group 8 consumed 120 mg/kg garlic juice + 4 mg/kg CrCl3. In group 9 rats received 8 mg/kg CrCl3 + 120 mg/kg garlic juice. After 4 weeks animals were killed and semen samples used to determine MDA, SOD, GPx and TAS activity. According to the results, garlic juice (120 mg/kg) significantly declined semen MDA activity compared to control group (P < 0.05). Also, garlic juice (120 mg/kg) significantly attenuated effects of CrCl3 on TAS compared to control group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that garlic juice presumably protects semen oxidation in rat testes.

Malekzadeh S.,University of Yazd | Malekzadeh S.,Islamic Azad University at Shabestar | Sohankar A.,Isfahan University of Technology
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow | Year: 2012

This study focuses on the reduction of the fluid forces acting on a square cylinder in a laminar flow regime by a passive control, i.e. a flat plate placed upstream of the cylinder. The Reynolds numbers based on the width of the square cylinder (W) and the inlet flow velocity are selected from Re = 50 to Re = 200. The width of the control plate (h) is varied from 0.1. W to 0.9. W and the distance between the control plate and the cylinder (S) is chosen within the range of 1.1-7. W. In these ranges of h and S, the different flow patterns and the magnitude of the reduction of the fluid forces in order to identity the optimum conditions are studied. The results of the heat transfer from a cylinder in the presence of a control plate are also provided for S= 1.1-7. W, h= 0.5-0.9. W, Re = 160, Pr = 0.71. The results show that the optimum position and width for the control plate are a distance of 3. W away from the cylinder and a width of 0.5. W, respectively, where the almost maximum reduction of the fluid forces and the minimum reduction of the heat transfer are provided. It is also found that the total Nusselt number of the cylinder in the presence of the control plate decreases for different gap spacings, except for S/. W= 1.1. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Paknezhad A.,Islamic Azad University at Shabestar
Laser and Particle Beams | Year: 2015

Third-harmonic Brillouin backscattering (3HBBS) instability is investigated in the interaction of a picosecond extraordinary laser pulse with a homogeneous transversely magnetized underdense plasma. Nonlinear coupled equations that describe the instability are derived and solved for a weakly coupled regime to find the maximum growth rate. The nonlinearity arises through the combined effect of relativistic mass increase, static magnetic field, and ponderomotive acceleration of plasma electrons. The growth rate is found to decrease as the static magnetic field increases. It also increases by increasing both plasma density and laser intensity. It is also established that the growth rate of 3HBBS instability in a magnetized plasma is lower than that of fundamental Brillouin backscattering instability. © 2015 Cambridge University Press.

The present paper attempts to determine the properties of photonic spectra of Thue-Morse, double-period and Rudin-Shapiro one-dimensional quasiperiodic multilayers. The supposed structures are constituted by high temperature HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 and YBa2Cu3O7 superconductors. Our investigation is restricted to the visible wavelength domain. The results are demonstrated by the calculation of transmittance using transfer matrix method together with Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model. It is found that by manipulating the parameters such as incident angle, polarization, the thickness of each layer and operation temperature of superconductors the transmission spectra exhibit some interesting features. This paper, provides us a pathway to design tunable total reflector, optical filters and optical switching based on superconductor quasiregular photonic crystals. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Movassagh M.H.,Islamic Azad University at Shabestar
Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2011

Mycotoxins in milk is a public health concern and has to be regularly monitored. The role of milk in human nutrition is well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk samples in Tabriz city (Iran) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-nine UHT milk samples from different supermarkets in Tabriz city were collected during 6 months (July to December 2008). AFM1 was found in 100% of the examined milk samples; 83.67% of the samples had AFM1 greater than the maximum tolerance limit (50ng/L) accepted by European Union. It can be concluded that AFM1 levels in the samples purchased in Tabriz city appear to be a serious public health problem at the moment and is much higher than some other countries. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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