Golpira H.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
International Journal of Information Systems and Supply Chain Management | Year: 2017
This paper proposes a model to formulate a supply chain network design (SCND) problem against uncertainty. The objective of the model is to minimize total cost of the network. The model employs risk averseness of retailers to obtain more realistic model regarding uncertain demand. Using Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) to deal with this uncertainty makes the model to be robust. In this way, data-driven approach is used to avoid any distributional assumptions because realizations of uncertain parameters are the only information obtainable. This approach reformulates the initial uncertain model as a mixed integer linear programming problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for robust SCND with respect to retailers risk averseness. © 2017 IGI Global.
Ebrahimi B.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2017
A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was introduced based on acidic-modified (AM) activated carbon (AC) prepared from acorn shells of native oak trees in Kurdistan. Hydrochloric acid (15%, w/w) and nitric acid (32.5%, w/w) were used to condition and modify AC. The IR spectra of AC and AM-AC showed that AM lead to the formation of increasing numbers of acidic functional groups on AM-AC. AMAC was used in the SPE method for the extraction and preconcentration of Ni+2 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination at ng/mL levels in model and real food samples. Effective parameters of the SPE procedure, such as the pH of the solutions, sorbent dosage, extraction time, sample volume, type of eluent, and matrix ions, were considered and optimized. An enrichment factor of 140 was obtained. The calibration curve was linear with an R2 of 0.997 in the concentration range of 1-220 ng/mL. The RSD was 5.67% (for n = 7), the LOD was 0.352 ng/mL, and relative recoveries in vegetable samples ranged from 96.7 to 103.7%.
Ahmad K.M.-S.,Garmian University |
Talebi R.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Annual Research and Review in Biology | Year: 2017
Genetic diversity in 35 chickpea genotypes were studied using morphological characters and 14 start codon targeted (SCoT) markers. Results of variance analysis and descriptive statistics for morphological traits indicated that the genotypes differed significantly for all studied characteristics. A dendrogram was constructed from morphological traits and the genotypes were grouped into six clusters. Fourteen SCoT primers yielded 135 bands, of which 100 bands were polymorphic. Number of polymorphic bands varied from 6 to 9, with an average of 7.14 bands per primer. PIC values ranged from 0.27 (SCoT22) to 0.46 (SCoT15), with an average value of 0.36 per primer. Cluster analysis Based on SCoT-PCR markers grouped 35 chickpea genotypes into three major clusters. Results showed a weak relationship between morphological divergence and molecular diversity pattern. Overall, we found relatively high genetic diversity in examined chickpea genotypes using morphological and SCoT molecular markers. Findings of this study can be useful for breeder for selective genotypes and specific traits in breeding programs in chickpea. © 2017 Ahmad and Talebi.
Azizi F.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2017
In this study, graphene–nitrogen-doped TiO2 (GR–N/TiO2) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by sol–gel method. For synthesis of these nanocomposites have been used from triethylamine N(CH3CH2)3 as precursors of nitrogen, titanium tetraiso-propoxide (TTIP) Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4 as precursors of titanium and graphene sheets. The resulting GR–N/TiO2 nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive of X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The optical properties are studied using UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), which confirms that the spectral responses of the nanocomposite catalysts are extended to the visible light region and show a significant reduction in band gap energy from 3.26 to 2.9 eV. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra verify that GR–N/TiO2 nanocomposites possess better charge separation capability than pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2. The photocatalytic activity is tested by degradation of methyl orange (MO) as a model textile dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The results demonstrate that GR–N/TiO2 nanocomposites can effectively photodegrade MO, showing an impressive photocatalytic enhancement over pure TiO2. The facile preparation of these nanocomposites and their improved photocatalytic activities suggest that these materials can have a promising future for water and wastewater purifications. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ahmadi F.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Global Veterinaria | Year: 2011
This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces cervisiae (probiotic) yeast on growth performance, blood parameters and the relative weight of immune organs in broiler chicks. A total number of 240 day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were raised throughout study period (42d). A total number of 160 birds were allocated into four groups 40 birds with 4 replicate and 10 chicks in each pen. Experimental diets included: Control (without probiotic) and other groups provided to supplement basal diets with the level of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% probiotic, 2, 3 and 4 groups, respectively. Body weight, feed intake, mortality and feed conversion ratio were weekly recorded. At the end of study, 4 birds (One bird per replicate) were selected from any group with closest weight to mean treatment. Sample blood collected from bronchial vein and entered it two tube glass (with/without EDTA). Serum removed and stored in-20°C to further analysis and immediately birds slaughtered. Visceral tissue such as: liver, heart, SI, abdominal fat, gizzard and immune organs as bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus were removed and weighed. Results showed that levels of 0.1% diet Probiotic had significantly increased body weight at 42 days in comparison with control (p<0.05) and improved feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). Abdominal fat and small intestine had significantly decreased as compared with control (p<0.05). Blood parameters such as: Hb, total protein (TP) and albumin increased as compared with the control group, with no significant differences. Different levels of probiotic had significantly decreased cholesterol and TG concentration as compared with control (p<0.05). Adding probiotic to the diet increased weight of immune organs with any level in comparison with control (p>0.05). The results indicated that supplemented diet with the levels of 0.05 and 0.1% caused: 1) Improved growth performance; 2) Decreased cholesterol and TG concentration of sera 3) Thepax as Probiotic can improved immune system response by means of effect it on lymphoid organs specially, bursa Fabricius. © IDOSI Publications, 2011.
Hamidi S.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch |
Kermani M.J.,Amirkabir University of Technology
European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids | Year: 2013
Numerical solutions of a compressible two-phase two-component moist-air flow with and without shock waves are investigated in this paper using the high resolution flux difference splitting scheme of Roe (1981) . The solver is spatially third order and temporally second order accurate. The flow is assumed to obey an equilibrium thermodynamic model. For the two-phase flow in dry regions, the pressure (P), temperature (T), and velocity (u) are extrapolated to the cell faces by the MUSCL approach, while in wet regions the steam quality (χ) has been used instead of pressure. Comparisons of the wetness fraction at the nozzle exit show that in the case of moist-air flow rather than pure steam, a much higher wetness fraction, about 30%, can be achieved, while in the case of pure steam and under similar conditions the wetness fraction is limited to about 6%. The present study gives a practical guideline in the production of liquid water in a much higher rate, if an additive gas (like air) is added to steam. Hence it can be used as an alternative approach to produce potable water from atmospheric air in geographically humid regions. For moist-air flow with normal shock, the results show that across the shock the liquid phase rapidly evaporates. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Shokrollahi B.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in Arabi sheep using data collected from 1999 to 2009. Investigated traits consisted of birth weight (N = 2776), weaning weight (N = 2002) and weight at six months of age (N = 1885). The data were analyzed using restricted maximum likelihood analysis, by fitting univariate and multivariate animal models. All three weight traits were significantly influenced by birth year, sex and birth type. Age of dam only significantly affected birth weight. Log-likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine the most suitable model for each growth trait in univariate analyses. Direct and total heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight and weight at six months of age (based on the best model) were 0.42 and 0.16 (model 4), 0.38 and 0.13 (model 4) and 0.14 and 0.14 (model 1), respectively. Estimation of maternal heritability for birth weight and weaning weight was 0.22 and 0.18, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among these traits were positive. Phenotypic correlations among traits were low to moderate. Genetic correlations among traits were positive and higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations. Weaning weight had a strong and significant correlation with weight at six months of age (0.99). We conclude that selection can be made in animals based on weaning weight instead of the present practice of selection based on weight at six months.
Refaei A.,Razi University |
Refaei A.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch |
Takook M.V.,Razi University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011
The one-loop effective action of QED is calculated by the Schwinger method in Krein space quantization. We show that the effective action is naturally finite and regularized. It also coincides with the renormalized solution which was derived by Schwinger. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Ahmadizar F.,University of Kurdistan |
Soltanpanah H.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011
This paper deals with a reliability optimization problem for a series system with multiple-choice and budget constraints. The objective is to choose one technology for each subsystem in order to maximize the reliability of the whole system subject to the available budget. This problem is NP-hard and could be formulated as a binary integer programming problem with a nonlinear objective function. In this paper, an efficient ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed for the problem. In the approach, a solution is generated by an ant based on both pheromone trails modified by previous ants and heuristic information considered as a fuzzy set. Constructed solutions are not guaranteed to be feasible; consequently, applying an appropriate procedure, an infeasible solution is replaced by a feasible one. Then, feasible solutions are improved by a local search. The proposed approach is compared with the existing metaheuristic available in the literature. Computational results demonstrate that the approach serves to be a better performance for large problems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karami K.,University of Kurdistan |
Fahimi K.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013
We study the correspondence between the interacting viscous ghost dark energy model with the tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models in the framework of Einstein gravity. We consider a spatially non-flat FRW universe filled with interacting viscous ghost dark energy and dark matter. We reconstruct both the dynamics and potential of these scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting viscous ghost dark energy model, which can describe the accelerated expansion of the universe. Our numerical results show that the interaction and viscosity have opposite effects on the evolutionary properties of the ghost scalar field models. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.