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Ahmadizar F.,University of Kurdistan | Soltanpanah H.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

This paper deals with a reliability optimization problem for a series system with multiple-choice and budget constraints. The objective is to choose one technology for each subsystem in order to maximize the reliability of the whole system subject to the available budget. This problem is NP-hard and could be formulated as a binary integer programming problem with a nonlinear objective function. In this paper, an efficient ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed for the problem. In the approach, a solution is generated by an ant based on both pheromone trails modified by previous ants and heuristic information considered as a fuzzy set. Constructed solutions are not guaranteed to be feasible; consequently, applying an appropriate procedure, an infeasible solution is replaced by a feasible one. Then, feasible solutions are improved by a local search. The proposed approach is compared with the existing metaheuristic available in the literature. Computational results demonstrate that the approach serves to be a better performance for large problems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sheikhahmadi H.,University of Kurdistan | Aghamohammadi A.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Saaidi K.,University of Kurdistan
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

In this work, the effects of non-commutative and commutative vacua on the phase space generated by a scalar field in a scalar torsion scenario are investigated. For both classical and quantum regimes, the commutative and non-commutative cases are compared. To take account the effects of non-commutativity, two well known non-commutative parameters, θ and β, are introduced. It should be emphasized, the effects of β which is related to momentum sector has more key role in comparison to θ which is related to space sector. Also the different boundary conditions and mathematical interpretations of non-commutativity are explored. © 2015 The Authors.


Shokrollahi B.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in Arabi sheep using data collected from 1999 to 2009. Investigated traits consisted of birth weight (N = 2776), weaning weight (N = 2002) and weight at six months of age (N = 1885). The data were analyzed using restricted maximum likelihood analysis, by fitting univariate and multivariate animal models. All three weight traits were significantly influenced by birth year, sex and birth type. Age of dam only significantly affected birth weight. Log-likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine the most suitable model for each growth trait in univariate analyses. Direct and total heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight and weight at six months of age (based on the best model) were 0.42 and 0.16 (model 4), 0.38 and 0.13 (model 4) and 0.14 and 0.14 (model 1), respectively. Estimation of maternal heritability for birth weight and weaning weight was 0.22 and 0.18, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among these traits were positive. Phenotypic correlations among traits were low to moderate. Genetic correlations among traits were positive and higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations. Weaning weight had a strong and significant correlation with weight at six months of age (0.99). We conclude that selection can be made in animals based on weaning weight instead of the present practice of selection based on weight at six months.


Refaei A.,Razi University | Refaei A.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Takook M.V.,Razi University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The one-loop effective action of QED is calculated by the Schwinger method in Krein space quantization. We show that the effective action is naturally finite and regularized. It also coincides with the renormalized solution which was derived by Schwinger. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Nouri H.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Hong T.S.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Manufacturing Systems | Year: 2013

The cellular manufacturing system (CMS) is considered as an efficient production strategy for batch type production. The CMS relies on the principle of grouping machines into machine cells and grouping machine parts into part families on the basis of pertinent similarity measures. The bacteria foraging optimization (BFO) algorithm is a modern evolutionary computation technique derived from the social foraging behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria. Ever since Kevin M. Passino invented the BFO, one of the main challenges has been the employment of the algorithm to problem areas other than those of which the algorithm was proposed. This paper investigates the first applications of this emerging novel optimization algorithm to the cell formation (CF) problem. In addition, for this purpose matrix-based bacteria foraging optimization algorithm traced constraints handling (MBATCH) is developed. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve the cell formation problem while considering cell load variations and a number of exceptional elements. The BFO algorithm is used to create machine cells and part families. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with a number of algorithms that are most commonly used and reported in the corresponding scientific literature such as K-means clustering, the C-link clustering and genetic algorithm using a well-known performance measure that combined cell load variations and a number of exceptional elements. The results lie in favor of better performance of the proposed algorithm. © 2012 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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