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Hatamlou A.,Islamic Azad University at Khoy | Hatamlou A.,National University of Malaysia
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Nature has always been a source of inspiration. Over the last few decades, it has stimulated many successful algorithms and computational tools for dealing with complex and optimization problems. This paper proposes a new heuristic algorithm that is inspired by the black hole phenomenon. Similar to other population-based algorithms, the black hole algorithm (BH) starts with an initial population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem and an objective function that is calculated for them. At each iteration of the black hole algorithm, the best candidate is selected to be the black hole, which then starts pulling other candidates around it, called stars. If a star gets too close to the black hole, it will be swallowed by the black hole and is gone forever. In such a case, a new star (candidate solution) is randomly generated and placed in the search space and starts a new search. To evaluate the performance of the black hole algorithm, it is applied to solve the clustering problem, which is a NP-hard problem. The experimental results show that the proposed black hole algorithm outperforms other traditional heuristic algorithms for several benchmark datasets. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Farhadian M.,Islamic Azad University at Khoy
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member, has been well documented as a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Myostatin, which has 376 amino acids, is synthesized as a precursor protein. Polymorphism of the myostatin gene in Makoei sheep was investigated by PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism technique (SSCP). Genomic DNA of 92 sheep was isolated from whole blood. A 417-bp myostatin intron I segment was amplified by standard PCR, using locus-specific primers. Four SSCP patterns, representing four different genotypes, were identified. The frequencies of the genotypes were 0.413, 0.293, 0.130, and 0.163 for AD, AC, AE, and BC, respectively. Allele frequencies were 0.4185, 0.0815, 0.2283, 0.2065, and 0.0652 for A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Observed heterozygosity was 0.7192. There was significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for this locus. Analysis of myostatin gene sequences revealed heterozygous SNPs, which were in agreement with results obtained in the SSCP analysis. We concluded that SSCP analysis is a quick, sensitive and reliable technique for determination of DNA polymorphisms. The effect of these genotypes on some traits was investigated, and the AD genotype was found to be associated with birth weight. No phenotypic associations were detected with the other genotypes. No associations of myostatin variants with weight gain were detected. We conclude that polymorphism in the ovine myostatin gene is associated with birth weight, but not with weight gain in Iranian Makoei sheep.

Aminkhani A.,Islamic Azad University at Khoy
Heterocyclic Communications | Year: 2013

Synthesis of 3-(t-butylimino or cyclohexylimino)-2-aryl-2,3- dihydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline-1,1(10b H)-dicarbonitriles was developed through a one-pot fourcomponent high-yield reaction of malononitrile, an aldehyde, isoquinoline and t-butylisocyanide or cyclohexylisocyanide. The simple, mild, and efficient reaction is conducted in dichloromethane at room temperature.

The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora population, carcass traits, and serum metabolites in Japanese quail. Six diets containing 0, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 mg of ginger powder per kilogram of diet were formulated. Each diet was offered ad libitum to four replicate cages of quail (12 birds per cage) for 35 days. Performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal morphology and microflora population and blood biochemistry parameters were assessed on day 35. Body weight gain, feed conversion, intestinal microflora and carcass and breast weights were significantly improved in the ginger treated quail compared to control quail whereas feed intake, intestinal morphology, relative weights of liver, gizzard and heart were not significantly affected. In addition, concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL in the serum were markedly reduced in quail supplemented with ginger powder compared to control quail at the end of the experimental period (day 35) while concentrations of HDL, glucose and total protein were not significantly changed. These results show that the addition of ginger improved the intestinal microflora, leading to more nutrients being assimilated and consequently increasing production performance in quail. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Hatamlou A.,Islamic Azad University at Khoy | Hatamlou A.,National University of Malaysia
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2012

Data clustering is an important technique in data mining. It is a method of partitioning data into clusters, in which each cluster must have data of great similarity and different clusters must have data of high dissimilarity. A lot of clustering algorithms are found in the literature. In general, there is no single algorithm that is suitable for all types of data, conditions and applications. Each algorithm has its own advantages, limitations and shortcomings. Therefore, introducing novel and effective approaches for data clustering is an open and active research area. This paper presents a novel binary search algorithm for data clustering that not only finds high quality clusters but also converges to the same solution in different runs. In the proposed algorithm a set of initial centroids are chosen from different parts of the test dataset and then optimal locations for the centroids are found by thoroughly exploring around of the initial centroids. The simulation results using six benchmark datasets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository indicate that proposed algorithm can efficiently be used for data clustering. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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