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Ghorbian S.,Islamic Azad University at Bonab
International Journal of Infertility and Fetal Medicine | Year: 2012

Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is available in the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy and can be used for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis including, determination of fetal sex, identification of specific single gene disorders, typing of fetal blood groups (RhD), paternity determination and potentially routine use for Down's syndrome (DS) testing of all pregnancies.I searched published literature on the PubMed and databases on Scopus interface systematically using keyword's cffDNA, noninvasive diagnosis, fetal DNA in the maternal serum. Reference lists from the papers were also searched. cffDNA representing only 3% of the total cell-free circulating DNA in early and rising to 12% in late pregnancy, clinical investigations has already demonstrated the potential advantage, such as improving safety, earlier diagnosis and comparative ease of testing using cffDNA technology. The discovery of cffDNA circulating in the maternal serum has opened the door to noninvasive prenatal diagnosis testing with novel clinical implications. Source

Ghorbian S.,Islamic Azad University at Bonab
Gene | Year: 2012

Male factor infertility elucidated about half the couple of infertility and in around 50% of cases, its etiology remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate a predisposing genetic background for Yq deletions and male infertility and effectiveness of molecular genetic approaches have uncovered several etiopathogenetic factors, such as microdeletions of Yq chromosome. The Y chromosome microdeletions removing the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions, which are most common molecular genetic causes of oligospermia or azoospermia. However, with the analysis of Yq deletions, we are able to obtain a better understanding of the clinical significance of genetic anomaly and to the identifying of fertility candidate genes in the AZF regions. Molecular genetic approaches, becomes a routine diagnostic test, that provides an etiology for spermatogenic disturbances, and prognosis for testicular sperm retrieval according to the type of deletion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Abbasian M.,Payame Noor University | Shoja S.E.,Islamic Azad University at Bonab
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012

'Living' radical graft polymerization was employed to prepare graft copolymers with nitroxidemediated arylated syndiotactic polystyrene as the backbone and polystyrene (PS), poly(p-methylstyrene) (PMS) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as branches. A two-stage process has been developed to synthesize the macroinitiator. First, syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) was modified by the Friedel-Crafts reaction to introduce chlorine; second, the chlorine groups were converted to nitroxide mediated groups by coupling with 1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO-OH). The resulting macroinitiator (sPSTEMPO) for 'living' free radical polymerization was then heated in the presence of styrene and pmethylstyrene to form graft and block copolymers. We used the obtained copolymer and N-bromosuccinimide as brominating agent to achieve polymers with bromine groups. This brominated copolymer was used as a macroinitiator for polymerizing methyl methacrylate in the presence of the CuBr/bpy catalyst system. The formation of the graft and block copolymers was confirmed by DSC, 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. This approach using macroinitiators is an effective method for the preparation of new materials. Source

Rad A.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Naderi B.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Soltani M.,Islamic Azad University at Bonab
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Although all university majors are prominent, and the necessity of their presence is of no question, they might not have the same priority basis considering different resources and strategies that could be spotted for a country. Their priorities likely change as the time goes by; that is, different majors are desirable at different time. If the government is informed of which majors could tackle today existing problems of world and its country, it surely more esteems those majors. This paper considers the problem of clustering and ranking university majors in Iran. To do so, a model is presented to clarify the procedure. Eight different criteria are determined, and 177 existing university majors are compared on these criteria. First, by k-means algorithm, university majors are clustered based on similarities and differences. Then, by AHP algorithm, we rank university majors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hosseini Hashemi B.,The Intl Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology IIEES | Poursamad Bonab A.,Islamic Azad University at Bonab
Engineering Structures | Year: 2013

In this study, the cyclic behavior of laced built-up columns was investigated. Eight columns, for which two IPE100 profiles were used as the longitudinal elements (chords) and plates were used as the lacing bars, were constructed and tested under constant axial load and lateral cyclic load. To evaluate the effects of the axial load, different axial loads were exerted on the specimens. To evaluate the effects of varying the distance between chords, two different distances were used in the test specimens. The test results showed that the axial load significantly affected the ductility, the strength and the stiffness of the built-up columns. The different distances between the main chords of the columns changed the ductility but had little effect on the strength, stiffness and energy absorption capacity. The test results showed that the laced columns exhibited relatively good seismic characteristics, and it may be acceptable to use these types of columns in moderate earthquake-prone areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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